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Australian Light aircraft domestic private personal usage

Article Link (PDF) : Fatigue and distance travel in Australia      YouTube: STOL Aircraft





Amateur built and experimental aircraft     Amateur-Built (ABAA) Aircraft — Certification (PDF)

CASR Part 21 - Certification and airworthiness requirements for aircraft and parts

Obstacles and Flaps

Link: CASA recommended syllabus Recreational Pilots License ("How to" control and "operate" an aircraft) Also 1st half of the PPL
Link: CASA recommended syllabus (2nd half) Private Pilots License ("How to" navigate and manage flights and aircraft equipment "according legislation nationally" internationally recognised)
Link: Other CASA Sample syllabuses for download

YouTube: (Under 100K AUD) "Kit STOL" (many companies around the world can make them with a spec of 60m -100m roll - ! BUT need to be careful they have a suitable two person maximum takeoff weight !)

Link: Here is another two seat kit STOL "Chipper" from a US company called Belite for around(finally) 50K AUD (i have found a web page on the net that near misrepresents Belite and the aircraft as Autralian)
Link: Here is the Belite "Chipper" kit acquirement "sets" pricing list break-down, i don't wish to bother here with two seat documents info much to make example of the complexity of how obtaining the parts is, but the document (PDF) is cleanly written and displayed and a good introduction if you bother to view it
Link: This parts listing document description (PDF) for the Belite Chipper is a good "introductory view" also

Many of the links following in the red box require a PDF reader

What stops homebuilt light aircraft being built (aside cost) :
1. Nowhere sensible, safe (OHS) and secure with enough space (a couple of feet larger than the constructed aircraft size in any direction) to build it
(particularly the immense toxicity of paint and glues)
2. Nowhere to take off and land and acceptable legal usage airspace to use it
3. Nowhere to store it while not in use
4. No tools (or not the correct tools) to build it with
(5) It can be said that most people do not commit being their own customs broker with importation to port for ACBPS for tariffs and GST
==== for example from the "duty rates applied book Schedule 3" in "rates of duty payable list" Dept. Home Affairs , these two numbers, the "reference number" with its statistical code must be filled in on the N10 import form example (PDF document)
Warning: This must all be done over VPN closed business internet (ICS) with Personal digital certificate and CCID requiring (EOI) check from Australia post for the online digital certificate authority issuer for you to obtain the “Type-1 individual digital certificate” (not other authentication systems offered) (PDF document link) to use in the ACBPS ICS(Integrated Cargo System) within time frames specified by ACBPS and notified with the correct information 48 hours prior to vessel arrival before the goods reach Australia !
Generally goods that do not fill a container are carried by cargo ships as Break Bulk (BK) to a port (You can learn all this in the DIY off grid article int his site - NOTE i am to re-update(repair) many links in the pages)
NOTE: "8802.20.00" is a complete aircraft fully constructed NOT parts (e.g. kits).
Tariff code "reference number" 8802.20.00   ,   "statistical code" 05 | - Aeroplanes and other aircraft, of an unladen weight not exceeding 2 000 kg
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.10.00   ,   "statistical code" 10 | - Propellers and rotors and parts thereof
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.20.00   ,   "statistical code" 11 | - Under-carriages and parts thereof
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.20.00   ,   "statistical code" 12 | - Other parts of aeroplanes or helicopters
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.90.00   ,   "statistical code" 13 | - Other

Helicopters "8802.11.00" and "8802.12.00" are complete helicopters! and "helicopter parts thereof" are with "aeroplane parts" in much the same layout in the schedule 3 table
NOTE: Duty payable may be free , HOWEVER, GST must be paid !
Yes! (that solves that little question) exchange rate is reasonably instant at the moment of transaction !
Also, international bank transfer by TT(Tele Transfer) , the "exchange rate" is usually 1 cent more(worse) than the standard published exchange rate against AUD as a normative, and your bank usually will require you to have a few thousand left over in the account at minimum for such larger transaction "as per banking company banking policy".
Unless the selling company offers "CIF (Cost Insurance Freight)" trade deal terms to an Australian port, you will need to find an Australian import sea freight forwarding company that also operates an office in the "product country of origin" to hire to obtain and load the product on behalf of you and probably manage the TT transaction in some form!
Link: Steps of importing heavy weight goods "sea cargo import"
NOTE: The following document has a minor error at mentioning "N30 release" that is only for extradited goods in "a warehouse or factory AS foreign zone on Australian secured zoning NOT standard or normal action of importation. e.g. comes into an N30 factory , is assembled and then placed on a ship and leaves to a foreign destination.
Link: comprehensive step by step example of importation (PDF)

Link: (PDF) If there is some form of different approach...

Solve these problems first in some safe efficient permanent way and then acquiring a kit home-building the aircraft can occur!

WARNING about the meaning of the word "kit" and totals "look closely" "examine carefully" (NOTE "TOO" with International freight NOTHING IS EVER FREE)
(anyone kit set requires other kits to finish it, an aircraft is in sets for sections of it)
Moroever "wiring and instruments" are almost a separate non supplied to any manufacturer and not part of any pricing shown by any manufacturer! (5K AUD for instruments for use in non controlled air space only is easily the max - paint and painting tools is around another 1K, ordinary tools can be around 1K, transport of kits "from Australian ports" can be up to 3K)

Moreover again, "making a hangar first" means having the land size location situation and requires steel welding and concreting to construct a gale force proof hangar (a few of feet higher than the highest possible point of the aircraft -re tail-dragger propeller and a couple of feet longer than the longest dimension of the aircraft)!
One other feature is "construction degree of difficulty" , some are almost materials and plans , be sure what your total expenditure and kit "sets of" checksum will finally produce after searching and choosing to buy 4 seat kits (4 seat are usually too heavy to be LSA but 4 seat is what you need for viable useful remote kept "VH" vehicle or remote home or difficult access home) !

Just a quick note! If you ever get an aircraft, "ground handling" on a windy day is required to be understood, there is a quantity of carefulness and control use to prevent light aircraft from tipping or being knocked over by wind gusts !
They do not simply stay upright because you're on the ground!
Always commit "tie down" with the tie down links the moment not in use, and park it directly pointing its tail into the forecast and present wind!
The investment would be too huge to lose!

* (Important) Aircraft fuel systems: it is suggested that you ensure your fuel tank has booster pump and the carburetor system (whether "actual carburetor" or "fuel inject air inlet throat") has heating system, too, fuel injection is a better safer process than "actual carburetor" - carburetor heating (so called / named) is used on the air inlet on fuel injected systems not simply carburetors to prevent ice forming if conditions such as that occur !
Link: Important - read this US FAA fuel system requirements (PDF)
"Actual carburetor" has a fuel bowl (relating gravity - just like a soup bowl on dining table) with a small quantity of fuel in it that is fed to the air inlet by suction. "Fuel Injection" (AVGAS or ordinary car fuel) has an injector nozzle protruding into the air inlet "so called" carburetor throat suction stream with electronically metered pumped fuel but suction does not actually deliver any fuel and fuel is not exposed to gravity and aircraft angles during injection, only the fuel tank is exposed to these circumstances that can cut off fuel !
Link: Aviation Carburetor online presentation
Link: Basic carburetor induction system
Link: FAA USA Aircraft power plant detailed introduction (PDF)
Link: QZ and A

One more feature to remember to ask the manufacturer, is whether both "anti-ice system" and "carburetor heat system" are supplied as standard systems, "they are actually quite required" in Australia!
Large STOL wheel "wide / large tyre" rough terrain undercarriage is also a requirement because Australia has few non VH ordinary kept landing strips and if everybody read this and bought aircraft it would probably not be until year 2025 the government would see need to move its fat lazy butt to put in more uncontrolled landing strips!
Presuming Barge Arse assesses it.

Link: Kit twin engine example(kit) (Velocity V-Twin 4 seat)
Link: (Velocity V-Twin 4 seat) News Article (1800ft - 500m ground roll)
Link: Kit (Velocity V-Twin 4 seat) specs (PDF)

Link: AeroCanard kit Single engine example(kit) FG (or RG) 4 seat (nb: too long a take-off roll for Australia)
Just to be aware, kits often (usually) are in two to three "kits" , meaning, main bodywings, and then often another "separate" kit to buy for it called a "finishing kit" (sometimes called "Firewall-Forward kit") - the nose cowling matching the engine and its mounts, control linkages and matching propeller system altogether, initial "complete set of" totals is the bare minimum to build to use it in uncontrolled air space.
Always understand what you require to order and the total will be (USD , AUD or other currency to convert and pay and also shipping cost along with terms such as CIF (shipping insurance is a good idea)) for what you pay to have a "complete" aircraft to finally construct and fly!

Link (PDF): Jabiru J430 kit sets parts list see: "Standard Inclusion"-instrumentation (note: "a" VHF radio is Australian "air band" GA spectrum)

Link: Zenith instrument kits

To be sensible at explaining and help here, normally a STOL kit for 4 seat will be standard around 120 to 150 meters takeoff distance, here's a USA kit with the same types of point of broken down "choices of sets" or "pure plans"(warning, but adhere to materials specification) can be used.
Link: Bearhawk 4 seat kit aircraft

Note: to understand the (shall we say) "final economic cost will be", that any aircraft engine is around 20K dollars "at least" usually (bare price).
The following article has quite some wisdom inside it
Link: Super cub comparison
To assist at where to look, and "what may ever be a good sensible idea" for use in the Australian environment and personal or business life here is link to a general kit listing site
Link: Aircraft kits list
There are many good kit aircraft all over the world that are generally never found on any web site except their own. so deciding price for usability to practicality could take a few months of research itself just to short list! (as a wise man in South Park once said ..."ooh...i'm staying out of this on"...)
But here is another in the genre of 4 seat STOL (the requirement for Australia - 4 seats is not merely use for family but extra unexpected cargo weight)
Link: (USA) Backcountry Boss 4 seat bush aircraft
..."One more feature to remember to ask the manufacturer, is whether both "anti-ice system" and "carburetor heat system" are supplied as standard systems, "they are actually quite required" in Australia!"...
Link: (CAnada - Quebec) Dream Tundra kit STOL 4 seat

Link: (CAnada - Quebec) "Levitation 4" Tapanee Aviation 4 seat

Link: (CAnada - British Colombia) Murphy Yukon 4 seat

Link: (CAnada - British Colombia) Murphy Moose "M14P - 600ft ground roll" (other is 800 neither actually STOL)
Link: Vedeneyev M14P (360 HP)
Link: about Vedeneyev M14P (360 HP) and PF

The Jabiru J430 Australian built kit aircraft made in Bundaberg Queensland is "not quite a STOL" (as some spurious site touted it can have a take-off roll of 150m although i have never found this so short in any of Jabiru's documentation) because of its landing gear not being wide heavy terrain tyres that would cut back its cruising and maximum never-exceed-speed.
It is unsuitable for runways that are rough or unprepared, however (according to some sites documents) it does sport a take-off of roll of 150 meters (that does not appear to be true).
Apparently the J430 and J230-D have the same fuselage but it would be a sensible point to understand Australia and the lack of support at landing and using light aircraft needs to have 120 meters as maximum ground roll fully loaded in a four seater with heavy terrain undercarriage for take-off landing at that maximum distance along with the NVFR specifications and bad weather de-icing spec too.
Storching along from here....
The Canadian's have done it (a couple of homebuild kit versions), the Czechs have done it(one homebuild kit version), the yanks have done it (a couple of homebuild kit versions), However, what stinks is neither Australia nor Soth Efferika have done it (heavy terrain, high visibility NVFR bad weather STOL with under 120 meter rolls).

Of this previous point of "country of supplier" and "cockpit instruments", it is a good idea to know the full electrical requirements for the instruments AND the aircraft's "voltage regulator output specifications/parameters".

As you can imagine, an "option or package" of cockpit instrumentation may also need to be in the "correct language" e.g. English.
But there is a point to this mention here. Each instrument will have lighting and (maybe as with VHF two way radio or transponders) other potential components that require "a quantity of electric current" and "a specific operational voltage".

To put it succinctly, both the current (amperes) level and the voltage (V) require control to prevent damage or starvation (blackout or power fade) to the instruments and other electrical accessories.
In every type of vehicle (road air or water) electrical supply circuit between instruments, consoles, radios or lighting bulbs (powerful or tiny) is a device called a voltage regulator !

(a) The spark plug with its electrical timing and transformer
(b) The starter motor

Everything else must be supplied correct voltage and amperage from an off-shoot circuit from the "voltage regulator(s)" !

Too again, "instruments and consoles e.t.c. that could go into a range of electrical parameter situations of voltage and amperage" that operate from some "remote" (isolated enclosed) power source such as a battery and alternator in a vehicle sometimes have at the back either different socket points for different voltages or a multi step setting switch with so marked voltages.

Link: (article) PITOT static system
Link: (article) PITOT static system (see image diagram of heated PITOT)
Link: (A) PITOT operated digital avionics instrument system
Link: (B) PITOT operated digital avionics instrument system (PDF manual)
Link: GPS reciever to interface to PITOT EFIS
Link: PITOT probe - heated
Link: PITOT probe mount and gaskets
Link: PITOT static tubes Link: PITOT static tubes "installing"
Link: (PDF) PITOT static tubes "installing and parts (brand generic)"

And for setup of navigation equipment:
Link: Australian Geomagnetic Reference Field Values calculator
Link: Types of "North" (True, Magnetic, Grid)
Link: Geocentric Datum of Australia manuls for the magnetic inclination if you'd ever nee it
Link: Mapping coordinate formats
Link: Online mapping example coordinates for Mercator "Hours Minutes Seconds", "Decimal Mercator", "Degrees and decimal minutes", and "Universal Trans Mercator (UTM) zones"
Link: Convert between NATO UTM and "H M S" (Degrees Minutes Seconds)
Link: Types of Aviation Altitude
Link: Aviation altimeters and Altitude
Link: Aviation Meteorology tutorial
Link: Aviation aeronautical chart reading
Link: Weather map reading
Link: Weather map interpretation
Link: Airservices Australia and BOM - "Live" Aerodrome weather Cameras at bearing angles
Link: Aerodrome forecast map info BOM
Link: Aviation weather services

If you ad a component (e.g. lights or instrument or console known often electrically as a "load") to a circuit you must assess the total current draw of all added components and ad "a suitable correct current and voltage voltage regulator unit" for the extra current(amperes) draw "loading".
Adding powerful landing lights are a huge clue, such added equipment are always installed in vehicles with their own separate voltage regulator in a completely isolated circuitry from the battery ! If you need the aircraft to be IFR compatible and ad landing lights, you will need to consult an aviation electrician for light aircraft unless the required packages are accounted for to the aircraft kit supplier in total along with the kit (for you to order, use and "new pricing") !

Some components only print Voltage and "watts" consumed on the back of a load / component!
So if Voltage is a constant power rating of a circuit,
and amperes is the actual electricity throughput drainage of the electrical source,
WHAT is wattage !?
"wattage" is an expression of the quantity of energy used in that circuit or consumed by reaching the end of a complex component on its out end terminal (e.g. as to positive and negative terminal or power socket pins).
WATTAGE has one more important point !
Wattage is an expression of "the exact electrical consumption condition of ENERGY used"
To obtain "watts" is simple , circuit voltage multiplied by amps (volts x amps = watts).
Because some components only have volts and watts printed on them. "watts divided by volts" (watts/volts = amps (at that specific voltage)).
So if you have two different devices in your house operating from different electrical sources such as 240 volt and 12 volt battery and "their power consumption is the same usage in watts e.g. 100 wats you can "calculate the "amps" for either circuit".
100/12 = 8.3 amps (in a 12v circuit)
100/240 = 0.24 amps (in a 240v circuit) *****xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
100/240 = 0.416 amps (in a 240v circuit)
So "to explain crudely in technicality" if you look at the fuse box in your car, each of those little 1A , 2A , 5A fuse ratings corresponds an output pin ("output pins imaginary point here" - to know actually how voltage regulators operate it is similar to an "inverter output" so understand these relating to "voltage drop in a circuit" OCV (open circuit voltage) and CCA (cold cranking amps)) on a voltage regulator specifically to deliver to one component over one individual isolated circuit with the particular amperage current level at a rate a little less than that fuse rating (however, with large sudden current draw circuits such as flap motors and or headlights, usually a more suitable voltage regulator is placed in an individual circuit to prevent disturbance or damage to other electrical components) !

So back to the point that the "initial system voltage requirement of the aircraft's" alternator and battery circuit and charging balance voltage regulator requires to be understood first from the kit and supplier for the "instruments supplied into the console" and because of "correct operation levels of electrical supply", and the fact that "at some time landing lights and flap motor may be in use".
However, the battery itself is very important to understand!
Batteries have a finite quantity of energy stored!
So, what size in AH (Ampere Hours) of storage should be used?!
Here's a point to remember, if you use landing lights , flap motor, de-icing heater system and strobe lights, (probably landing at night)
The following 24 volt battery would potentially be dangerously low of electricity if you simply went into the hangar and switched off the aircraft!
Itself is not a good idea to leave or sit with the propeller being spun by the engine because family or other people could make contact with your propeller!
In fact, in 24v system with 2 x 500w electric motor for flaps (consumes at points for a moment 10 Kilowatts (surge and feed constant speed power) from their "motor controllers"), 2 x 100 watt landing lights, 1000 watts de-icing (lets say its a water version and a good cuppa), 800 watts of instruments-console, and 400 watt of strobe
that equals (something like i could imagine) a 20 second drain on the battery of 12.4 kilowatts (in 24 volts) = approx. 508 (24v-AMPS) !!!!!
Then when no flaps, 2.4 kilowatts (in 24 volts) = approx. 98 (24v-AMPS) with landing lights and de-icing and strobes console-instruments.
1 kilowatt in 24 volts is 41 amps approximately | 1 kilowatt in 12 volts is 83 amps approximately
A 24 volt 13.6 AH aircraft battery such as found in a Cessna 150 is not actually safely sufficient, However, it is expected during this that the engine is operating so the "alternator is generating" extremely heavily!
Because the flaps are only used for seconds a 24v system to de-ice, strobe and operate the console and landing lights would need an alternator of 98 amps outputting at medium RPM of the engine.
However, usually / often only one landing light is fitted that an alternator and it appears this is no new problem but no real difference with only one landing light if the other systems are present.
Taking a look at an actual aircraft battery such as for the Cessna 150 at 24v in its "battery model data sheet" it can supply 600 AMPS fro 15 seconds "akin to 14 kilowatts" as calculated for the device , BUT it is only a 13.6 ah battery.
It means it can supply 13.6 amps for on hour "as a rating", HOWEVER, it can supply much more for a short period of time!
While this is not good for the battery, for most the "alternator ah rating size" is responsible for perventing such immense draw from the battery but it requires heavy duty "voltage regulators" too as much as a "larger alternator" OF "100amp @24v" !
Here is an online article about aircraft alternators
Here is a Battery Company data sheet for a 13.6 ah Cessna 150 24v battery
Concorder 13.6ah 24v Data Sheet (PDF)

If you want to understand batteries(the power source Voltage of the initial circuit) and current consumption by components(the amperage of the load(component operated on that specific voltage of the circuit)), read the "D.I.Y. Wind-Solar "Off Grid" ARTICLE" and also take a look at the "Battery Calculator page"(switch off the background image in the page menu).
Battery Calculator page

Next is a little complex, while instruments are mounted on a panel in front of the pilot OFTEN they are connected to "data lines" connected to a sensor outside the vehicle(aircraft)!
Never loom "electro-magnetically unshielded" data wires closer than 1 centimeter to any other electrical wire.
(another NOTE never place any physically stretch or taught/tight force temporary or permanent on electrical wires !!!)
e.g. air speed indicator sensors are often out on one of the wings.

Of instruments and mounting them into the instrument panel physically, there should be a rubber padding alike a gasket and if heavy and lengthy unit sitting in the panel should have support struts / cupping with rubber padding to prevent instrument vibration.
But must be secured / fastened into the panel board without ability to shake loose.
Link: Wiring and control panels of Experimental light aircraft

What should be on a control panel as basic / compulsory:
1. ignition on switch
2. starter button
3. ASI Aspeed indicator
4. Altimeter (barometric air pressure - from sea level)
5. vertical speed indicator
6. Artificial Horizon
7. magnetic compass (and heading indicator)
8. GPS system
9. turning meter
10. slip meter
11. Tachometer (with matching red-line to engine parameters)
12. fuel gauge
13. oil warning lamp
14. fuel flow warning lamp
15. carburetor heat control knob
16. fuel enriching control knob
17. Battery ampere / volt test meter
18. Alternator warning light
19. Flaps down warning light
20. - - (hybridised to control panel for non licensed uncontrolled air space user) "World radio reciever" with SW 1,2,3 (short wave) and cloak-wave operation containing Australian air band VHF frequencies receiver 118-137 MHz.
21. x - (not part of control panel either VH or Unlicensed (as suggestion)) UHF(476/477MhHz) CB "80 channel" Duplex/simplex "5 watt" hand held.
* others by choice or "compulsory(VH) reason":
- Air band 118-137 MHz VHF(Very High Frequency) transceiver
- Engine cylinder(s) temperature monitor
- VH(VH refers to Australian national registration prefix) registration transponder (sqwaker)
- various "Air traffic anti collision assistance device" (database radioed)
- FM/AM stereo radio CD deck
- Radar altimeter

*note: some of the above are able to be fulfilled as "EFIS combined"

Link: Radiotelephony communications and procedures in Class G airspace
Link: Airservices Australia frequency management
Link: Australian radiofrequency spectrum (PDF)

Avgas engine type and configuration is what to use to operate the engine of your aircraft. If you use a rare kit that has a diesel then you should only use "winter grade" diesel fuel because of ice or condensation danger. Avgas has some versions that help against ice or condensation!
Another note, is "Australian regulation refueling" for both action (correct ground procedure), equipment (anti-static earth binding), and legislation!
(PDF document)
(PDF document)

(note: Float plane modification

Other useful links:

“Uncontrolled air space unregistered (requires map and landmark reading skills)” )
Set online map to 0ft – 8000ft to clear out airspace shown above 8500ft
Uncontrolled airspace is class G and all below 8500ft

...For many in Australia, bus train or airliner is considered more than probably safer for long distance travel than either light aircraft or personal road vehicle,...That's what you think! , By interstate train the injuries and fatalities are generally teeth and bones caused by one of 5 criteria of "blunt instrument", "shotgun", "pistol", "machete" or "hands fist feet", Again, Buses generally alike a car are road accident, and finally airliners are "safe" in Australia from fatality for most, However, everything else of airliners is amiss the goals and reasons of both personal and business travel with a high to extreme risk of serious or irreparable disruption to personal or business plans and or security(personal or business)....

The following "news article" has two of the most common reasons for Light aircraft crash in Australia (1) Flight planning management and two (2) fuel.
Home built (piston single) Light aircraft test flight crash , HOWEVER, bad Flight planning management most commonly causes "collision with terrain (in many ways as a broad term0" through bad or insufficiently planned practices of flight path, of one of these being "overhead lines or wire-strike"!
These two ATSB reports typify the 3rd most common method of light plane crash (3) "loss of control" (stall - low air speed - low altitude)
a. Loss of control
b. Loss of control

ATSB 2016 Austrlian flight safety information media release
Most of the aircraft that crashed in 2017 (much media release coverage) were far over 20 years old!
In this document (following link) can be seen the "main" or common cause of fatal air crashes is "flight management planning" and second most common is "control handling operation", the last significant statistic in bulk killing is "bothering to or how to respond to emergency" !
Any questions why it is sensible to get training and VH use accreditation with PPL "not RPL or simple us of uncontrolled airspace" !

..."Ground-based animal strikes were relatively rare. The most common ground animals struck by aircraft were hares and rabbits, kangaroos, wallabies, dogs and foxes. Damaging animal strikes mostly involved kangaroos, wallabies and livestock."...
Bird and ground level "wildlife and animal strikes" stats info (flightsafety - article abridged)
Bird and ground level "wildlife and animal strikes" stats info (PDF report ATSB)

..."but if i go to hell then i hope i burn well"... (Source: Australian Transport Safety Bureau)

Link (article below): Anti icing equipment and meteorology crash example information for Australia (You can learn an immense quantity about flying from "this articles' links to reports on the crash")

Note: "Nowhere suitable inside Barrington Tops forest NSW" is any space made in a few places for a light aircraft to land although it is a mildly deadly area because of its terrain and many high peaks coupled with partial alpine weather akin to the north above Australia tropical "Storm Factory" (re the storm factory: why you calculate the price of hangar construction or hire to buying a kit aircraft rather than covers and tie-down!), although it is one of the most rugged and difficult terrain in Australia for anyone to search if such an event occurs!

A quick note about hangars, always double wall them or put in advanced growth canopy spreading trees planted around the three enclosed walls, and, double layer the roof with an air gap between the sealed roof and the heat shading roof cover to prevent heat damage more of point of heat exposure over prolonged periods such as days to months!

The very problem shows why you should use "STOL with heavy terrain wheels and include anti-ice systems in any aircraft package" you buy whether Kit DIY or factory built!
Its not to look pretty, its to handle how much help the Australian government refuses to be to developing proper transit systems (that being light aircraft because of distance and environment) as standard for completely ordinary citizens, the government only chooses to be a parasite bloodsucker at any level and has known that road vehicles are monstrous problem to use over vast distance but only sees the regular "roll out of tax" in it ignoring the fact that with good roads it only swapped fatality for crippling injury, note too that Barrington tops National Park was a military training area during the Vietnam war and in principal is anything except a military area by proxy all the bases within a 100km any side of it! The accident investigation reports and supplement information will tell you a large quantity about IFR flight and fitness required by machinery for Australian environment conditions.

Q: Why read the above article PDF Article "Fatigue and distance travel in Australia" !?
A: Recognize that "time wasting of life" and "impossible achievement of a travel solution about fatigue and speed and time (particularly where it has to be flexible)" is all road vehicles bring! Until people get a (PPL) Private Pilot license and use VH registered light aircraft to remove long distance road travel, there will always be crashes of massive magnitude!
This head on crash beats getting "Falkholted" or "Pacific Highwayed" (Although this was "the Princes highway" it is the southern version of terrain and road to "the Pacific highway (Northern)") (called "Bussed" - re the massive bus/coach crashes in history on it)" Wed Jan 17, 2018 ("Although recent" it is "one of the worst multi vehicle head on car crashes in Australian history to date (at least since national highways were made multi-"ROAD" by 1995 - 2000 and particularly because they were only ordinary small road vehicles)" and as YouTube can show "means QUITE SOMETHING to achieve that level of destruction of life by cars only") !
Link: "Picture of Falkholt boxing day accident location scene" shows the debris field (and liquid spillage) only little more than 50 yards long and for most is only impact inertia scatter that like many road accidents" has following cars run over it. Too the head on impact stopped both vehicles "ALMOST INSTANTLY" (as severe as that ever is except for the fact the vehicles struck "offset to center" but head on, center is all it was not) as they remain only a yard or so from each other, they show they were "offset at impact"(not "absolute center") by their rest position and revolved each other "at point of impact" "possible half a rotation (180o) only to facing opposite direction or a full 360o" depending which vehicle is which in the picture). An immense impact !!! , they only left "the collision impact point" by three yards and five yards from full speed collision in both directions to instant halt as shown by the short sparse debris field in the picture !
No idea how "anything" could survive that impact in either vehicle for a tiny moment (and probably did not), although forensics on Lockerbie disaster found time of death for two passengers of the 747 may have been sufficient to save them if they had been found shortly after alighting, but "to that effect" in the boxing day crash (200kmh to 240kmh collective impact speed to instant halt within one to two yards or less ) no such atmospheric assistance was a "chance" to cushion impact.
Anyhow, nothing unusual, just more common other ways in Australia (except between 1960 and 1995 on roads in Australia).
NOTE: Some of the problems of weather (e.g. Heatwave ! there have been 10 heatwaves in Australian history killed more than 100 people!) and other problems found in the following disaster link is a reason to have a PPL and VH registered light aircraft!
What occurred upon the Falkholt family (massive fatality in moments) is what that is as risk to use a road vehicle in Australia for many many more reasons also than simply the bad driver that hit them!
RES IPSA DES, it is the A typical result of the long distance journey on Australian roads.

e.g. Australian head on crashes Youtube
YouTube: head on crash Australia
YouTube: head on crash Australia

Other head on crashes (Australia) !
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia
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However it occurs, it's like the old AC/DC song goes, ..." Hells Bells ! " (which sound more like crunch!)

(speaking of "crunch" (or single dull "thud", "donk" or "whack") as a more realistic sound, don't listen to all of those Hollywood movies with air crashes if you are a bush-walker)

VH-MDX air crash 1981

The answer to this is if you buy a light aircraft, be sure its' kit has or the factory machine incorporates anti ice equipment fitted to your aircraft, (that also means changing to a larger battery and generator as to putting more lights on your aircraft means the same).

URL Picture of VH MDX
Picture of VH MDX (fair use de-enhanced colour)
It is actually a high powered six seat aircraft, and was being flown by IFR rules by that point it disappeared.
(PDF) What IFR roughly involves learning (US training list)
- For those that make a day out of IFR news and blog articles -    - For the rest of us, what the hell does that mean?! (CASA) -
...If you can't go to hell for that, then what the hell do you go to hell for...

News Article on VH-MDX
Report on VH-MDX
Operation Wittenoom search (PDF)
VH-MDX Communications (PDF)
VH-MDX Initial-Overview V2 (PDF)

140 knots 72.0222222m/s 259.28 kmh
170 knots 87.4555556m/s 314.84 kmh

199 seconds from the last radar point measured to final communication transmission
Altitude decent around 60kmh - 1000ft/minute (mean)
(maximum traversion from final radar point @140 Knots): 14.328 km * given speed by official investigation *(note: possible 110 Knots "under 8500 feet")
(maximum traversion from final radar point @170 Knots): 17.4036555644 km
100 seconds down to 3000ft is more likely the best it ever managed (note: -not 120 seconds-, when things fall with gravity it is an acceleration):
@140 Knots: 7.2 km
@170 Knots: 8.7 km

Meters - feet
1000 - 3280 * "becoming almost impossible" to miss terrain !
1100 - 3608
1200 - 3937
1300 - 4265
1400 - 4593*
1500 - 4921*

*1400 (Radar fade point: at 2 O'clock extent to 3O'clock at "1.5 - 2km" is a peak classifies as this and another 3km at 2 O'clock)
*1500 (Radar fade point: In a semi circle arc from 8 O'clock around to 2 0' clock classifies as 4824ft)
*1400 - 1500 (Radar fade point: Most of what is behind and to (port) left classifies as 4824ft also)
Topographic of Barrington Tops National park 5000ft radar fade point (320oM (330oT) point associated Williamstown Radar reciever - 45 Nm)

Wind was south-west to westerly and around 30 knots (30-50) more likely 30 at or below 5000ft, drift to easterly - north east is around 500m to 1Km a minute mean.

However, listening to the ATC recording the pilot appears to have taken alarm at the altitude, which leads me to believe he possibly had an "elevator" control failure at that time that he was completely unaware of (but maybe found that before the whole incident ceased and finalised) and that he "attempted the turn" after agreement with ATC at the moment thereabout when he said "6000" as his altitude.
When turning a conventional light aircraft, lowering to suitable wing loading speed first, then it requires increased engine power(or propeller pitch with constant speed gas turbine), but it is because of the requirement to maintain altitude in a normal turn with excessive drag for the aircraft angle during that aerodynamic problem of flight.
With ice forming, it can jam control surfaces and coupled with wing ice destroying the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft lift surfaces, it then has "almost no flight aerodynamic characteristics" and commits plummeting more than flight, trouble is however, "turn the aircraft" (called "banking") with all that together and there is "NO aerodynamic flight occurring" whatsoever, and "no elevator control" to vector the engine power against "turn slide altitude loss" a standard feature of aerodynamic operation during a turn (akin to a stall, or coffin corner) ! If anything, the wind speed and direction and its effect on the aircraft heading would then decide the final parameters of its resting pint.

One other point to note in the recording is quite subtle! Anyone whom has sat with a truck driver on long haul trips often will find that to "keep awake" (AKA keep "aware") is the "attitude" in the voice of the trucky to attempt to hold conversation to stay awake and aware!
It is not dissimilar to the attitude of the pilot in the ATC recording although the journey is nowhere near as long (pardon the pun) as long haul truck driving. Moreover, there is some evidence of losing potentially "mild physical" (radio button) and "mild coherence" but is extremely blanketed over by the unfolding gravity with which it appears he may have no proper explanation for and could not give to the ATC.
Again too he did say that some of the actual "electric driven" equipment "engine driven" (vacuum) equipment was not operating *[ valves and controllers use solenoids! see link].
(NOTE: Oddly electrical or engine driven).
If so then the (APU) air pressurization system may be on the same circuit and shutdown also!? , "hypoxemia" for various reasons may have been setting in, although the last of the recording sounds alike rushing air in the background such to having a door ajar mid flight.
So to summarize, ...up and down like a yo yo.. OR (and quite subtly) ...compass swinging like blazes... could simply be the inability for the "rear elevator control surfaces" to be used to vector the aircraft causing rudder buffeting by the wind and direction (note: can "saw"(reverse) almost as violently and by speed opposing direction momentarily, and by speed in a storm at angles (wind shear)). He may not have known this with any surety until the last minutes or had any true idea it was "the problem" when he contacted the ATC. It may have been the "compass" was responding but the aircraft was not, but being blown around anywhere, he may have only had "odd" steering from rudder and ailerons not realising the elevators were not operating.

VH-MDX-Meteorological-Conditions-V2 (PDF)

Note: with the topographic map, to read the map you need to "zoom the browser window", after, setting the map to the piece wanted in the window!
Topographic of Barrington Tops National park 5000ft radar fade point (320oM (330oT) point associated Williamstown Radar reciever - 45 Nm)

Now for something useless, all a complete waste of time! (look at Figure 16-3)