This ([quote - blazing saddles]..."this bill gentlemen"...) particular kit aircraft is where cheapskate meets actual possibility and converts it to potentially achieve the desired outcome and make an expending cheapskate !
STOL tyres (a requirement here and now in 2018):
There are no reliable landing strips in quantity in Australia, So first a STOL that takes off under 120 meters
full loading, HOWEVER, "TYRES" , because of judging a sensible strip (simply unobstructed open space and 2 times the takeoff / landing distance) there can be
some leftover weather results on the ground such as "mud and slurry" , a large diameter wheel "almost" handles this, but it actually should be at least 26
inches (better 29 inch) Diameter and "minimum 12 inch WIDTH" to handle mud and prevent sudden sinkage that would cause nose planting(diameter only does that
partially). The diameter of the wheel prevents holes in the ground such as dugout nests and soft patches from causing a wheel to get caught.
One more feature to understand is that the large width and diameter tyres will lower "safe rated cruise speed" if fitted, so for speed around 26 inch diameter x 12 inch wide is the smallest squeeze
size against collapsed rabbit or wombat holes. Bearhawk (4 place) article "model B" STOL (PDF)
( "Safe" required size STOL bush wheel(PDF) Tundra bushwheel fitting
info(PDF) Tundra bushwheel maintenance info
) Of tyres and of such a diameter size is having to shorten the struts to lower the drag but causes worry about propeller strike from a flat !
The following product is a special anti-flat sealant and will not require actual balancing although to distribute it properly after input to the tyres will
require some strange appearance driving up and down your private paddock strip a few times of 100 meters each day for 3 days and first one instantly after
insetting. (YouTube video)Anti-puncture sealant
Crankshafts , engines (some real issues to be aware of):
Crankshafts in engines and a replacement after "prop strike whereby a problem called dialing occurs" is often half what second hand private offered engines or partial engines are about ! The other is engine hours nearing overhaul TBO.
The small numbers ( e.g. 0.010 ) mentioned with crankshafts are usually thousands of inch (SAE / Imperial measurement) for bearing clearance runner ware, or partial degrees of dialing (bent off center / circumference) or "lumpiness" (non uniform) circular-ness of the crankshaft (and crankcase) bearing runner surface relating its axis (whether it is circle oval or lumpy), best ask what "measurement unit" and context it is.
So "dialing" is the action by a mechanic at taking measurements on the crankshaft using a "micrometer" and reading the "dial-gauge".
However, its' purpose is to find damage more often than ware, so "dialing is also a single word cliche' that exists" referring to the measurements from sudden engine stoppage such as propeller strike or oil loss / oil pressure loss seizure (any crankshaft internal combustion piston engine car truck or aircraft) because the crankshaft can also be bent angular offline from a massive shock "along the line" from "circular motion" alike dialing a telephone and "sending a message" as a shock down the to other end of the line!
While some prop strike engines that have been checked get a yellow tag for the crankshaft you will find the check only had .001 (one thousandth of an inch) , .002 (two thousandths of an inch) at worst as eccentricity, anything more than a few thousandths of an inch is starting to be heavy damage !
It is generally a good idea to replace the slipper bearings on the crankshaft after such an event.
Another point to note about prop strike, is that one of the main features that is a difference to an aircraft to a road vehicle engine is that an aircraft engine has a propeller axle with a single bearing set to hold the weight of the aircraft !
A fully loaded 4 seat light aircraft above ultra-light can weigh around two tonnes, so the bearing set on that axle must take all the loadings, but, however, can be damaged during a prop strike incident.
Other differences of aircraft engines (piston) with a road vehicle engine apart from aircraft engines being half the weight,
Aircraft engines have an either impeller or a centrifugally engaged clutch whether geared between the crankshaft and propeller or direct driven.
Aircraft engines usually have a "dry sump" and more than one oil pump to scavenge oil from the sump.
Aircraft engines have an oil reservoir tank and an oil cooler in their lubrication and cooling mechanism of operation, this is why an "oil temperature" gauge can often be found in aircraft instrument consoles.
Aircraft engines sometimes have a "pre-ignition oil pump" (good point if it's an airworthy propeller strike engine).
[ ! Unless you are educated and aptly capable of repairing and overhauling an internal combustion engine of various types it is not a good idea to buy either a repairable propeller strike engine neither an engine either requiring or nearing mandatory overhaul ]
Finally, a properly operating engine is generally 25k reconditioned to 35k depending age and model.
The following mentioned engines are quite large cylinder displacement when you think about Australian vehicles of the 1960's , so why !?
If you were to want a 200 HP engine today for a car or boat it would be around 2.5 litres displacement , HOWEVER, with a piston engine for aircraft it is a massive 500 cubic inch thereabout to produce 200 hp! The reason is thing called torque by built up flywheel inertia from engine RPM (often measure ft-lb - "foot pound" or Nm "Newton meters" / "Kg/m")
. Most piston engines in light aircraft are straight through or direct connected drive train to the propeller.
Because of that 1:1 drive ratio without gearing, the optimum maximum RPM the propeller harnesses air is 2500 RPM and the engine must be then spinning at that RPM (usually during takeoff for that RPM). So the aircraft engine will probably never be used at much more than 3000 RPM.
A car or truck however using top gear (straight through drive) can use 4000 - 5000 RPM that stores the inertia in its flywheel more economically to produce Horse-Power.
To recap and make the point better about proper STOL aircraft design since 2013, Here is a 4 seat aircraft (Vans RV-10) with a 235 - 260 HP motor and its takeoff roll at just on 1 tonne compared with these, the "Bearhawk Model-B" or alike a "Murphy Yukon" or alike a "Dream Tundra (160 - 240hp)", all STOL.
The roll being around 109 meters for the RV-10 with 235 hp, but with the STOL aircraft at around 1 and a half tonne (1500Kg) fully loaded they remain under 100 meters takeoff roll with horse-powers between 160hp and 240hp !
The STOL also climb at a lower speed and are safer and more responsive during this critical phase , however, the standard aerodynamics of the Vans requires higher speeds for control and stability.
All in all the Vans RV-10 is alike the Bearhawk original design 240hp, it is near a short takeoff aircraft but not actually, and requires higher horse-power to achieve a "similar appearance to a STOL" characteristic, but unfortunately it is the aerodynamics that give it the feature, that and STOL are a little difficult to fly at speed because the actions must all occur more gentle because of the response !
Self importing kits internationally as the customs broker
Many of the links following in the red box require a PDF reader
What stops homebuilt light aircraft being built (aside cost) :
1. Nowhere sensible, safe (OHS) and secure with enough space (a couple of feet larger than the constructed aircraft size in any direction) to build it
(particularly the immense toxicity of paint and glues)
2. Nowhere to take off and land and acceptable legal usage airspace to use it
3. Nowhere to store it while not in use
4. No tools (or not the correct tools) to build it with
(5) It can be said that most people do not commit being their own customs broker with importation to port for ACBPS for tariffs and GST
==== for example from the "duty rates applied book Schedule 3" in "rates of duty payable list" Dept. Home Affairs , these two numbers, the "reference number" with its statistical code must be filled in on the
N10 import form example (PDF document)
Warning: This must all be done over VPN closed business internet (ICS) with Personal digital certificate and CCID requiring (EOI) check from Australia post for the online digital certificate authority issuer for you to obtain the “Type-1 individual digital
certificate” (not other authentication systems offered) (PDF document link) to use in the ACBPS ICS(Integrated Cargo System) within time frames specified by ACBPS and notified with the correct information 48 hours prior to vessel arrival before the goods reach Australia !
Generally goods that do not fill a container are carried by cargo ships as Break Bulk (BK) to a port
(You can learn all this in the DIY off grid article int his site - NOTE i am to re-update(repair) many links in the pages)
NOTE: "8802.20.00" is a complete aircraft fully constructed NOT parts (e.g. kits).
Tariff code "reference number" 8802.20.00 , "statistical code" 05 | - Aeroplanes and other aircraft, of an unladen weight not exceeding
2 000 kg
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.10.00 , "statistical code" 10 | - Propellers and rotors and parts thereof
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.20.00 , "statistical code" 11 | - Under-carriages and parts thereof
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.20.00 , "statistical code" 12 | - Other parts of aeroplanes or helicopters
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.90.00 , "statistical code" 13 | - Other
Helicopters "8802.11.00" and "8802.12.00" are complete helicopters! and "helicopter parts thereof" are with "aeroplane parts" in much the same
layout in the schedule 3 table
NOTE: Duty payable may be free , HOWEVER, GST must be paid !
Yes! (that solves that little question) exchange rate is reasonably instant at the moment of transaction !
Also, international bank transfer by TT(Tele Transfer) , the "exchange rate" is usually 1 cent more(worse) than the standard published exchange rate against AUD as a normative, and your bank usually will require you to have a few thousand left over in the account at minimum for such larger transaction "as per banking company banking policy".
Unless the selling company offers "CIF (Cost Insurance Freight)" trade deal terms to an Australian port, you will need to find an Australian import sea freight forwarding company that also operates an office in the "product country of origin" to hire to obtain and load the product on behalf of you and probably manage the TT transaction in some form!
Link: Steps of importing heavy weight goods "sea cargo import" NOTE: The following document has a minor error at mentioning "N30 release" that is only for extradited goods in "a warehouse or factory AS foreign zone on Australian secured zoning NOT standard or normal action of importation. e.g. comes into an N30 factory , is assembled and then placed on a ship and leaves to a foreign destination. Link: comprehensive step by step example of importation (PDF)
[NOTE: Customs clearance pickup area requires knowing the areas and zones of the port: There is a truck marshaling area , but it is secure and only allowed at allocated time] Normally a load of batteries at 2 tonne weight costs AUD 1500 - AUD 2500 to freight alone, but, If you have a normal class "C" drivers license you can hire/rent a 4.5Tonne GVM van with tail lift for something like AUD 1000 for three days or less for 24 hours ***ONTIME HIRE BOOKING IS A PROBLEM HERE - pickup must be done within an hour of being notified or customs warehouse and port penalty rates will apply ! (if batteries and kit arrive the same day or near to you can wait and pay p/day dock rent(arrange first) , as much if your kit totals less or probably near 3 tonne with batteries you can use a 3 tonne van or truck), allowing pick-up at the docks after all customs inspection and dock / handling fees GST and Tariff are paid online over the ACBPS secure VPN (ICS) Integrated Cargo System application.]
* Other required equipment is a pallet-jack-trolley , heavy rope, padding carpet patches and three able bodied people.
At he very heart of some of these aircraft is construction from AKA "raw resources" with materials and industrial tools called plans building.
CNC machining of aircraft aluminium to make some complex shapes such as airfoil wing riblets may well be an option for some people if they can spend 3k to 5k AUD on a CNC aluminium cutting machine system of "at least 1200mm x 1200mm", However, above this size they then start to become expensive (for lack of better way of saying it) !
If you can spend around 50K to build an aircraft, CNC machine would be an ideal negligible cost to account into it.
1200mm x 1200mm (1.2 meters) gets you the ability to turn long parts of (e.g. 2300mm (2.3 meters) length) around on the CNC bench and run a cut A to B with a "second software map"(for another cut run) of the other end of a part on the same sheet, BUT must be set up on the CNC bench carefully to retain the absolute accuracy of the shape and cutting run !
The dividend benefit is however, time (from lower preparation and refining requirements) and accuracy of curves !
CNC machines use a standard computer with CNC software and CNC control box to cut the material on a the machines' bench.
The software is given a special graph map with the cutting run coordinates to follow to cut in a line from A (start) to B (end) inside the machine reach
boundary of the bench. X axis and Y axis are two dimensional and not all machine have Z axis ability, but with Z axis are often used for wood carving (and maybe Bearhawk Patrol (all wood aircraft) riblets).
WARNING ! If you intend to build from "blue-print plans" and or with materials requiring welding using an electric welding system, "you must
disconnect and remove the battery alternator and disconnect all other electricals including earthing wire if these are present on the vehicle" when welding e.g. sensor probes and RDAC e.t.c.
warning ! Using "MAPP gas torch" is not suitable substitute for safe-welding "4130 (AKA moly-chrome mild steel)" because of the weld brittleness being chemical not heat stress temper induced !, HOWEVER, After welding properly with any suitable of proper "flux shielding" (inert gas / arc stick covered or Acetylene assistant powder) "MAPP gas torch" is suitable to commit "stress relieving of the weld (lowering brittleness of the weld)" called normalising outside of an oven.
This is a standard Oxy-Acetylene procedure often taught to non qualified Oxy welders, It is done by allowing the weld to cool back to room temperature in its' own time , then use the MAPP or Oxy-Acetylene torch to heat the weld and its edge surrounds up to a level that is not able to be seen red-hot by weaving side to side over the weld moving along before the area quite reaches red hot, then leaving to re-cool.
NOTE: DO NOT quench any steel weld or it will be extremely brittle ! TOO, when normalising a weld with torch it must be an oxygen bottle combined pair system not atmosphere supplied !
Another warning about welding ! Raw materials such as steel or Aircraft Aluminium grade types sometimes have "cladding", an "unprepared resource PERMANENT bonded cover material(usually another cheap non reactive metal) over the sheet or pipe product" to protect the surface of the sheeting or other raw(unprepared) metal resource and must either be cleaned off by machining or it may not be able to be used in that circumstance because it would derogate the weld strength joint of two joined sections of material.
See your plans notes information for the exact requirements of grades and types of metal and its allowed "variants" for each part to form and construct !
Also ! USA and Australia as Europe and many countries , have different "lookup indexing number references" for types and grades and variants of steel or Aircraft Aluminium.
E.G. Aircraft aluminium , "4041 T3" , "6061 T6" , "2024" series Alloys (note: Welding any of these requires the exact correct "flux" and "filler alloy" and use of the correct "shield gas")
Both "Acroduster Too SA750" (Aerobatic + Agricultural) and the "BearHawk 4 place" types (Cargo + Domestic) have wings that are for most percentage made from these grades of Aircraft Aluminium. (Note Bearhawk Patrol is all wood aircraft 2 place cargo)
WARNING about the meaning of the word "kit" and totals "look closely" "examine carefully" (NOTE "TOO" with International freight NOTHING IS EVER
(anyone kit set requires other kits to finish it, an aircraft is in sets for sections of it) Moroever "wiring and instruments" are almost a separate non supplied to any manufacturer and not part of any pricing shown by any manufacturer! (5K AUD for instruments for use in non controlled air space only is easily the max - paint and painting tools is around another 1K, ordinary tools can be around 1K, transport of kits "from Australian ports" can be up to 3K)
Moreover again, "making a hangar first" means having the land size location situation and requires steel welding and concreting to construct a gale force proof hangar (a few of feet higher than the highest possible point of the aircraft -re tail-dragger propeller and a couple of feet longer than the longest
dimension of the aircraft)!
One other feature is "construction degree of difficulty" , some are almost materials and plans , be sure what your total expenditure and kit "sets of" checksum will finally produce after searching and choosing to buy 4 seat kits (4 seat are usually too heavy to be LSA but 4 seat is what you need for viable useful remote kept "VH" vehicle or remote home or difficult access home) !
Just a quick note! If you ever get an aircraft, "ground handling" on a windy day is required to be understood, there is a quantity of carefulness and control use to prevent light aircraft from tipping or being knocked over by wind gusts !
They do not simply stay upright because you're on the ground!
Always commit "tie down" with the tie down links the moment not in use, and park it directly pointing its tail into the forecast and present wind!
The investment would be too huge to lose!
"Kits almost invariably never have any flight instruments or flight instrument parts, and no engine", kits often (usually) are in two to three separate "kits" , meaning, main body and packages, or main body - packages and wings.
Then often another "separate" kit to buy for it called a "finishing kit" (sometimes called "Firewall-Forward kit") - the nose cowling matching the engine and its structural engine mount frame
Control linkages and matching propeller system altogether.
An initial "complete set of" totals (sum of the parts to make the whole cohesively matching) is the bare minimum to build.
Always understand what you require to order and the total will be for what you pay to have a "complete" aircraft to finally construct and fly! (USD , AUD or other currency to convert and pay and also shipping cost along with terms such as CIF (shipping insurance is a good idea)).
* (Important) Aircraft fuel systems and fuel operation:
It is suggested that you ensure your fuel tank has booster pump and the carburetor system (whether "actual carburetor" or "fuel inject air inlet throat") has heating system, too, fuel injection is a better safer process than "actual carburetor" - carburetor heating (so called / named) is used on the air inlet on fuel injected systems not simply carburetors to prevent ice forming if conditions such as that occur ! Link: Important - read this US FAA fuel system requirements (PDF)
"Actual carburetor" has a fuel bowl (relating gravity - just like a soup bowl on dining table) with a small quantity of fuel in it that is fed to the air inlet by suction. "Fuel Injection" (AVGAS or ordinary car fuel) has an injector nozzle protruding into the air inlet "so called" carburetor throat suction stream with electronically metered pumped fuel but suction does not actually deliver any fuel and fuel is not exposed to gravity and aircraft angles during
injection, only the fuel tank is exposed to these circumstances that can cut off fuel ! Link: Aviation Carburetor online presentation Link: Basic carburetor induction system Link: FAA USA Aircraft power plant detailed introduction (PDF) Link: QZ and A
One more feature to remember to ask the manufacturer, is whether both "anti-ice system" and "carburetor heat system" are supplied as standard systems, "they are actually quite required" in Australia!
Large STOL wheel "wide / large tyre" rough terrain undercarriage is also a requirement because Australia has few non VH ordinary kept landing strips and if everybody read this and bought aircraft it would probably not be until year 2025 the government would see need to move its fat lazy butt to put in more uncontrolled landing strips!
Presuming Barge Arse assesses it.
Light Aircraft Kits to bother with for 4 seat and cargonote: in this section bushplane refers to near capability or ability to convert it
>*** . NOTE: SUB-KIT AND KIT PRICES ARE USUALLY IN "USD" CURRENCY ON INTERNATIONAL SITES !!! (ALWAYS CHECK WHICH CURRENCY FIRST)
Link: (STOL + bushplane CH-801 4 seat)
Here is a perfect example again of how "kits and types" are broken down into "sets" and "options" and those sets sometimes may only be relevant to some countries (look for the words "NOT INCLUDED"), moreover, it seems there is not much mention of where to get cockpit instrumentation, but can probably be modeled for Australian requirements from a Jabiru "VH" suitable type such as J430 4 seat
Although it may be thought that with the "finishing kit" and other "finishing parts" there is a propeller (depends whether it is a separate item and usually is for special reasons, choices),
It is a good idea to understand that there is better efficiency from some propellers such as "three blade", for example, the Murphy moose is actually sold with two blade and wide bladed more modern prop blade design, but for such as Australia better efficiency and takeoff power usage a three blade is more of a "must"(where possible).
Apart aircraft "fitting" , choice of another propeller is a "must" for Australia to reliably take-off shortest every time and cruise when harnessing the engine power.
Propeller "diameter against undercarriage suspension movement ground strike" and "weight" are the two main limiting factors in obtaining a different propeller, but it is best to account your economics for using "at least a three blade propeller" for any light aircraft you buy (never two blade if you can avoid that somehow).
Some two blade propeller systems are more efficient than the older standard two blade design and it is best to understand if these are actually suitable on any aircraft because of the need for Horse Power harnessing for efficiency.
To be sensible at explaining and help here, normally a STOL kit for 4 seat will be standard around 120(130 max) to 150(not quite able to be called STOL but near) meters takeoff distance, here's a USA kit with the same types of point of broken down "choices of sets" or "pure plans"(warning, but adhere to materials specification) can be used. Link: Bearhawk 4 seat kit aircraft (Original “A” standard 4-seat model – 200 - 500 ft roll modifiable to a bushplane – note: Model Bravo is a 4 seat STOL + bushplane)
Note: to understand the (shall we say) "final economic cost will be", that any aircraft engine is around 20K dollars "at least" usually (bare price).
The following article has quite some wisdom inside it Link: Super cub comparison (STOL + bushplane)
To assist at where to look, and "what may ever be a good sensible idea" for use in the Australian environment and personal or business life here is link to a general kit listing site Link: Aircraft kits list
There are many good kit aircraft all over the world that are generally never found on any web site except their own. so deciding price for usability to practicality could take a few months of research itself just to short list! (as a wise man in South Park once said ..."ooh...i'm staying out of this on"...)
But here is another in the genre of 4 seat STOL (the requirement for Australia - 4 seats is not merely use for family but extra unexpected cargo weight) Link: (USA) Backcountry Boss 4 seat
bush aircraft (STOL + bushplane)
..."One more feature to remember to ask the manufacturer, is whether both "anti-ice system" and "carburetor heat system" are supplied as standard
systems, "they are actually quite required" in Australia!"... Link: (CAnada - Quebec)
Dream Tundra kit STOL 4 seat (STOL + bushplane)
Link: (USA FL) BD-4C 4 seat “Not a STOL – Not a bushplane” BD-4C is here only for the point of people whom require a high speed commute light aircraft and would use a light aircraft on “prepared runways grass or other of home field and minor airports and alike” such as business persons traveling between major cities.
The Jabiru J430 Australian built kit aircraft made in Bundaberg Queensland is "not quite a STOL" (as some spurious site touted it can have a take-off roll
of 150m although i have never found this so short in any of Jabiru's documentation) because of its landing gear not being wide heavy terrain tyres that would
cut back its cruising and maximum never-exceed-speed.
It is unsuitable for runways that are rough or unprepared, however (according to some sites documents) it does sport a take-off of roll of 150 meters (that
does not appear to be true).
Apparently the J430 and J230-D have the same fuselage but it would be a sensible point to understand Australia and the lack of support at landing and using
light aircraft needs to have 120 meters as maximum ground roll fully loaded in a four seater with heavy terrain undercarriage for take-off landing at that
maximum distance along with the NVFR specifications and bad weather de-icing spec too.
Storching along from here....
The Canadian's have done it (a couple of homebuild kit versions), the Czechs have done it(one homebuild kit version), the yanks have done it (a couple of
homebuild kit versions), However, what stinks is neither Australia nor Soth Efferika have done it (heavy terrain, high visibility NVFR bad weather STOL with
under 120 meter rolls).
Light Aircraft cockpit Instrumentation and critical systems
Of this previous point of "country of supplier" and "cockpit instruments", it is a good idea to know the full electrical requirements for the instruments AND the aircraft's "voltage regulator output specifications/parameters".
As you can imagine, an "option or package" of cockpit instrumentation may also need to be in the "correct language" e.g. English. But there is a point to this mention here. Each instrument will have lighting and (maybe as with VHF two way radio or transponders) other potential components that require "a quantity of electric current" and "a specific operational voltage".
To put it succinctly, both the current (amperes) level and the voltage (V) require control to prevent damage or starvation (blackout or power fade) to the instruments and other electrical accessories. In every type of vehicle (road air or water) electrical supply circuit between instruments, consoles, radios or lighting bulbs (powerful or tiny) is a device called a voltage regulator !
THE ONLY TWO CIRCUITS THAT DO NOT USE A VOLTAGE REGULATOR ARE ,
(a) The spark plug with its electrical timing and transformer
(b) The starter motor
Everything else must be supplied correct voltage and amperage from an off-shoot circuit from the "voltage regulator(s)" !
Too again, "instruments and consoles e.t.c. that could go into a range of electrical parameter situations of voltage and amperage" that operate from some "remote" (isolated enclosed) power source such as a battery and alternator in a vehicle sometimes have at the back either different socket points for different voltages or a multi step setting switch with so marked voltages.
***** While an EFIS can be obtained at the cheaper end of a pricing system, The display size will be too small for many people to use for so much information , it does not mean it can be co-wired for zooming onto a larger LCD display stand alone or run from the machine by adapter.
"Consider using a larger expensive EFIS" or at least an EFIS with display output port and signal to larger (computer type LCD screen standalone) LCD screen output and wired in power supply (see voltage regulator section) that allows use with a computer LCD display that can be mounted in the instrument panel.
However, to use an ordinary computer LCD console will require probably 2Kg more of "12/24/48v (whichever the aircraft power system battery uses) to AC 240v inverter" and its "240v mains power source transformer" (usually supplied retail with the unit). If possible you should see about LCD consoles of similar shape that operate from such vehicle DC power supplies directly too.
The final difficulty ! , LCD displays often consume at least 100 watt of current which translates in amperage to "12v 8.3 amps" (100w 24 equals 4.15 amps) (12v 200w equals 16.6 amps, 24v 200w equals 8.3 amps), so again, the correct circuit and voltage regulator is important to map. That's the same as one or two landing lamps, so the/a voltage regulator will need to balance that for the alternator, but the alternator must be able to produce the maximum constant consumable wattage/current required.
As above before the previous links... ...Everything else must be supplied correct voltage and amperage from an off-shoot circuit from the "voltage regulator(s)" !... (note: some regulators have various maximum load output terminal sets for better balance distribution)
If you add a component (e.g. lights or instrument or console known often electrically as a "load") to a circuit you must assess the total current draw of all added components and ad "a suitable correct current and voltage voltage regulator unit" for the extra current(amperes) draw "loading".
Adding powerful landing lights are a huge clue, such added equipment are always installed in vehicles with their own "separate voltage regulator in a completely isolated circuitry" with the battery and alternator !
If you need the aircraft to be IFR compatible and ad landing lights, you will need to consult an aviation electrician for light aircraft unless the required
packages are accounted for to the aircraft kit supplier in total along with the kit (for you to order, use and "new pricing") !
Some components only print Voltage and "watts" consumed on the back of a load / component!
So if Voltage is a constant power rating of a circuit,
and amperes is the actual electricity throughput drainage of the electrical source, WHAT is wattage !?
"wattage" is an expression of the quantity of energy used in that circuit or consumed by reaching the end of a complex component on its out end terminal (e.g. as to positive and negative terminal or power socket pins).
WATTAGE has one more important point !
Wattage is an expression of "the exact electrical consumption condition of ENERGY used"
To obtain "watts" is simple , circuit voltage multiplied by amps (volts x amps = watts).
Because some components only have volts and watts printed on them. "watts divided by volts" (watts/volts = amps (at that specific voltage)).
So if you have two different devices in your house operating from different electrical sources such as 240 volt and 12 volt battery and "their power consumption is the same usage in watts e.g. 100 wats you can "calculate the "amps" for either circuit".
100/12 = 8.3 amps (in a 12v circuit)
100/240 = 0.24 amps (in a 240v circuit) *****xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx NO IT DOES NOT ! SO JUST FOR SAFETY ALWAYS USE A CALCULATOR
100/240 = 0.416 amps (in a 240v circuit)
So "to explain crudely in technicality" if you look at the fuse box in your car, each of those little 1A , 2A , 5A fuse ratings corresponds an output pin ("output pins imaginary point here" - to know actually how voltage regulators operate it is similar to an "inverter output" so understand these relating to "voltage drop in a circuit" OCV (open circuit voltage) and CCA (cold cranking amps)) on a voltage regulator specifically to deliver to one component over one individual isolated circuit with the particular amperage current level at a rate a little less than that fuse rating (however, with large sudden current draw circuits such as flap motors and or headlights, usually a more suitable voltage regulator is placed in an individual circuit to prevent disturbance or damage to other electrical components) !
So back to the point that the "initial system voltage requirement of the aircraft's" alternator and battery circuit and charging balance voltage
regulator requires to be understood first from the kit and supplier for the "instruments supplied into the console" and because of "correct operation levels
of electrical supply", and the fact that "at some time landing lights and flap motor may be in use".
However, the battery itself is very important to understand!
Batteries have a finite quantity of energy stored!
So, what size in AH (Ampere Hours) of storage should be used?!
Here's a point to remember, if you use landing lights , flap motor, de-icing heater system and strobe lights, (probably landing at night)
The following 24 volt battery would potentially be dangerously low of electricity if you simply went into the hangar and switched off the aircraft!
Itself is not a good idea to leave or sit with the propeller being spun by the engine because family or other people could make contact with your propeller!
In fact, in 24v system with 2 x 500w electric motor for flaps (consumes at points for a moment 10 Kilowatts (surge and feed constant speed power) from their "motor controllers"), 2 x 100 watt landing lights, 1000 watts de-icing (lets say its a water version and a good cuppa), 800 watts of instruments-console, and 400 watt of strobe
that equals (something like i could imagine) a 20 second drain on the battery of 12.4 kilowatts (in 24 volts) = approx. 508 (24v-AMPS) !!!!!
Then when no flaps, 2.4 kilowatts (in 24 volts) = approx. 98 (24v-AMPS) with landing lights and de-icing and strobes console-instruments.
1 kilowatt in 24 volts is 41 amps approximately | 1 kilowatt in 12 volts is 83 amps approximately
A 24 volt 13.6 AH aircraft battery such as found in a Cessna 150 is not actually safely sufficient, However, it is expected during this that the engine is operating so the "alternator is generating" extremely heavily!
Because the flaps are only used for seconds a 24v system to de-ice, strobe and operate the console and landing lights would need an alternator of 98 amps outputting at medium RPM of the engine.
However, usually / often only one landing light is fitted that an alternator and it appears this is no new problem but no real difference with only one
landing light if the other systems are present.
Taking a look at an actual aircraft battery such as for the Cessna 150 at 24v in its "battery model data sheet" it can supply 600 AMPS fro 15 seconds "akin to 14 kilowatts" as calculated for the device , BUT it is only a 13.6 ah battery.
It means it can supply 13.6 amps for on hour "as a rating", HOWEVER, it can supply much more for a short period of time!
While this is not good for the battery, for most the "alternator ah rating size" is responsible for perventing such immense draw from the battery but it requires heavy duty "voltage regulators" too as much as a "larger alternator" OF "100amp @24v" !
Here is an online article about aircraft alternators CONSIDERATIONS FOR ALTERNATOR UPGRADES: RUNNING ON PLANE-POWER
Here is a Battery Company data sheet for a 13.6 ah Cessna 150 24v battery Concorder 13.6ah 24v Data Sheet (PDF)
If you want to understand batteries(the power source Voltage of the initial circuit) and current consumption by components(the amperage of the load(component
operated on that specific voltage of the circuit)), read the "D.I.Y. Wind-Solar "Off Grid" ARTICLE" and also take a look at the "Battery Calculator
page"(switch off the background image in the page menu).
here: Battery Calculator page
Next is a little complex, while instruments are mounted on a panel in front of the pilot OFTEN they are connected to "data lines" connected to a sensor outside the vehicle(aircraft)!
Never loom "electro-magnetically unshielded" data wires closer than 1 centimeter to any other electrical wire.
(another NOTE never place any physically stretch or taught/tight force temporary or permanent on electrical wires !!!)
e.g. air speed indicator sensors are often out on one of the wings.
Of instruments and mounting them into the instrument panel physically, there should be a rubber padding alike a gasket and if heavy and lengthy unit sitting in the panel should have support struts / cupping with rubber padding to prevent instrument vibration.
But must be secured / fastened into the panel board without ability to shake loose. Link: Wiring and control panels of Experimental light aircraft
The actual required aircraft instruments and equipment
What should be on a control panel as basic / compulsory in any aircraft "in thereof NAVIGATION occurs to fly it":
[ 0. AN iEFIS "Electronic Flight Instrument System" (single unit often contains and replaces: Artificial Horizon, magnetic compass, GPS viewer, Barometric
Altimeter, Vertical speed, ASI) ]
1. "RDAC" engine monitoring system (Cylinder temperature, and Exhaust Temperature(lean and rich mixture sensing from exhaust)) iEFIS "compatible"
(note: the higher you climb in altitude, the richer the fuel mixture becomes, the lower you descend of altitude, the leaner("hotter burning" fuel to air
ratio) your fuel mixture becomes in piston engines).
2. Oil temperature gauge
3. Oil pressure gauge
4. carburetor heat control knob
5. fuel enriching control knob
6. ignition on switch
7. starter button
8. ASI Aspeed indicator
9. Altimeter (barometric air pressure - from sea level)
10. vertical speed indicator
11. Artificial Horizon
12. magnetic compass (and heading indicator)
13. GPS system
14. turning meter
15. slip meter
16. Tachometer (with matching red-line to engine parameters)
17. fuel gauge
18. oil warning lamp
19. fuel flow warning lamp
20. Battery ampere / volt test meter
21. Alternator warning light
22. Flaps down warning light
23. - - (hybridised to control panel for non licensed uncontrolled air space user) "World radio reciever" with SW 1,2,3 (short wave) and cloak-wave operation
containing Australian air band VHF frequencies receiver 118-137 MHz.
23. x - (not part of control panel either VH or Unlicensed (as suggestion)) UHF(476/477MhHz) CB "80 channel" Duplex/simplex "5 watt" hand held.
* others by choice or "compulsory(VH) reason":
- Air band 118-137 MHz VHF(Very High Frequency) transceiver
- Engine cylinder(s) temperature monitor
- VH(VH refers to Australian national registration prefix) registration transponder (sqwaker)
- various "Air traffic anti collision assistance device" (database radioed) e.g. ADS-B
- FM/AM stereo radio CD deck
- Radar altimeter
*note: some of the above are able to be fulfilled as "EFIS combined"
Avgas engine type and configuration is what to use to operate the engine of your aircraft. If you use a rare kit that has a diesel then you should only use
"winter grade" diesel fuel because of ice or condensation danger. Avgas has some versions that help against ice or condensation!
Another note, is "Australian regulation refueling" for both action (correct ground procedure), equipment (anti-static earth binding), and legislation!
(PDF document) https://www.casa.gov.au/file/146341/download?token=60_W8mwI
(PDF document) https://www.casa.gov.au/file/78676/download?token=NpIFuSpo
“Uncontrolled air space unregistered (requires map and landmark reading skills)” )
Set online map to 0ft – 8000ft to clear out airspace shown above 8500ft
Uncontrolled airspace is class G and all below 8500ft
...For many in Australia, bus train or airliner is considered more than probably safer for long distance travel than either light aircraft or personal
road vehicle,...That's what you think! , By interstate train the injuries and fatalities are generally teeth and bones caused by one of 5 criteria of "blunt
instrument", "shotgun", "pistol", "machete" or "hands fist feet", Again, Buses generally alike a car are road accident, and finally airliners are "safe" in
Australia from fatality for most, However, everything else of airliners is amiss the goals and reasons of both personal and business travel with a high to
extreme risk of serious or irreparable disruption to personal or business plans and or security(personal or business)....
The following "news article" has two of the most common reasons for Light aircraft crash in Australia (1) Flight planning management and two (2) fuel. Home built (piston single) Light aircraft test flight crash , HOWEVER, bad Flight planning management most
commonly causes "collision with terrain (in many ways as a broad term0" through bad or insufficiently planned practices of flight path, of one of these being
"overhead lines or wire-strike"!
These two ATSB reports typify the 3rd most common method of light plane crash (3) "loss of control" (stall - low air speed - low altitude) a. Loss of control ATSB 2016 Austrlian flight safety information
Most of the aircraft that crashed in 2017 (much media release coverage) were far over 20 years old!
In this document (following link) can be seen the "main" or common cause of fatal air crashes is "flight management planning" and second most common is
"control handling operation", the last significant statistic in bulk killing is "bothering to or how to respond to emergency" !
Any questions why it is sensible to get training and VH use accreditation with PPL "not RPL or simple us of uncontrolled airspace" !
Note: "Nowhere suitable inside Barrington Tops forest NSW" is any space made in a few places for a light aircraft to land although it is a mildly deadly area
because of its terrain and many high peaks coupled with partial alpine weather akin to the north above Australia tropical "Storm Factory" (re the storm
factory: why you calculate the price of hangar construction or hire to buying a kit aircraft rather than covers and tie-down!), although it is one of
the most rugged and difficult terrain in Australia for anyone to search if such an event occurs!
A quick note about hangars, always double wall them or put in advanced growth canopy spreading trees planted around the three enclosed walls, and, double
layer the roof with an air gap between the sealed roof and the heat shading roof cover to prevent heat damage more of point of heat exposure over prolonged
periods such as days to months!
The very problem shows why you should use "STOL with heavy terrain wheels and include anti-ice systems in any aircraft package" you buy whether Kit DIY or
Its not to look pretty, its to handle how much help the Australian government refuses to be to developing proper transit systems (that being light aircraft
because of distance and environment) as standard for completely ordinary citizens, the government only chooses to be a parasite bloodsucker at any level and
has known that road vehicles are monstrous problem to use over vast distance but only sees the regular "roll out of tax" in it ignoring the fact that with
good roads it only swapped fatality for crippling injury, note too that Barrington tops National Park was a military training area during the Vietnam war and
in principal is anything except a military area by proxy all the bases within a 100km any side of it! The accident investigation reports and supplement
information will tell you a large quantity about IFR flight and fitness required by machinery for Australian environment conditions.
(speaking of "crunch" (or single dull "thud", "donk" or "whack") as a more realistic sound, don't listen to all of those Hollywood movies with air
crashes if you are a bush-walker)
VH-MDX air crash 1981
The answer to this is if you buy a light aircraft, be sure its' kit has or the factory
machine incorporates anti ice equipment fitted to your aircraft, (that also means changing to a larger battery and generator as to putting more lights
on your aircraft means the same).
199 seconds from the last radar point measured to final communication transmission
Altitude decent around 60kmh - 1000ft/minute (mean)
(maximum traversion from final radar point @140 Knots): 14.328 km * given speed by official investigation *(note: possible 110 Knots "under 8500
(maximum traversion from final radar point @170 Knots): 17.4036555644 km
100 seconds down to 3000ft is more likely the best it ever managed (note: -not 120 seconds-, when things fall with gravity it is an acceleration):
@140 Knots: 7.2 km
@170 Knots: 8.7 km
Meters - feet
1000 - 3280 * "becoming almost impossible" to miss terrain !
1100 - 3608
1200 - 3937
1300 - 4265
1400 - 4593*
1500 - 4921*
Wind was south-west to westerly and around 30 knots (30-50) more likely 30 at or below 5000ft, drift to easterly - north east is around 500m to 1Km a minute
However, listening to the ATC recording the pilot appears to have taken alarm at the altitude, which leads me to believe he possibly had an "elevator"
control failure at that time that he was completely unaware of (but maybe found that before the whole incident ceased and finalised) and that he
"attempted the turn" after agreement with ATC at the moment thereabout when he said "6000" as his altitude.
When turning a conventional light aircraft, lowering to suitable wing loading speed first, then it requires increased engine power(or propeller pitch with
constant speed gas turbine), but it is because of the requirement to maintain altitude in a normal turn with excessive drag for the aircraft angle during
that aerodynamic problem of flight.
With ice forming, it can jam control surfaces and coupled with wing ice destroying the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft lift surfaces, it then has "almost
no flight aerodynamic characteristics" and commits plummeting more than flight, trouble is however, "turn the aircraft" (called "banking") with all that
together and there is "NO aerodynamic flight occurring" whatsoever, and "no elevator control" to vector the engine power against "turn slide altitude loss" a
standard feature of aerodynamic operation during a turn (akin to a stall, or coffin corner) !
If anything, the wind speed and direction and its effect on the aircraft heading would then decide the final parameters of its resting pint.
One other point to note in the recording is quite subtle! Anyone whom has sat with a truck driver on long haul trips often will find that to "keep awake"
(AKA keep "aware") is the "attitude" in the voice of the trucky to attempt to hold conversation to stay awake and aware!
It is not dissimilar to the attitude of the pilot in the ATC recording although the journey is nowhere near as long (pardon the pun) as long haul truck
driving. Moreover, there is some evidence of losing potentially "mild physical" (radio button) and "mild coherence" but is extremely blanketed over by the
unfolding gravity with which it appears he may have no proper explanation for and could not give to the ATC.
Again too he did say that some of the actual "electric driven" equipment "engine driven" (vacuum) equipment was not operating *[ valves and
controllers use solenoids! see link]. (NOTE: Oddly electrical or engine
If so then the (APU) air pressurization system may be on the same circuit and shutdown also!? , "hypoxemia" for various reasons may have been setting
in, although the last of the recording sounds alike rushing air in the background such to having a door ajar mid flight.
So to summarize, ...up and down like a yo yo.. OR (and quite subtly) ...compass swinging like blazes... could simply be the inability for the "rear elevator
control surfaces" to be used to vector the aircraft causing rudder buffeting by the wind and direction (note: can "saw"(reverse) almost as violently and by
speed opposing direction momentarily, and by speed in a storm at angles (wind shear)). He may not have known this with any surety until the last minutes or
had any true idea it was "the problem" when he contacted the ATC. It may have been the "compass" was responding but the aircraft was not, but being blown
around anywhere, he may have only had "odd" steering from rudder and ailerons not realising the elevators were not operating.
So what of flying in the Burmuda triangles of forests ... "where to go" .... "anyone give a sh"....
One thing not mentioned in this article is "emergency locator beacons". As that is the below video of Vietnam Hueys shows that Vietnam had little difference
to Australia "until" reaching geographical areas of rice paddy, everything else including farmland prairie and forest is geographically Australia, including
piles of rock dust and grass.
Locating was done with satellite and UTM mapping no far different to GPS. Soviets had satellite GPS systems in the early 1970s also.
Of helicopters, not mentioned much of kits here, i have always felt the UH-1 utility design and particularly its pendulous system for weight and angle was
one of the best ever made (in the utility carrier context - excuse the megalomania), but it also has another feature that civilian helicopters don't along
with it, that being Horsepower! It is just a sad fact that many helicopter accidents do not run along the lines of light aircraft but rather because of
horsepower and maneuverability by larger stronger bat(blade) and pendulum system, and such design mechanisms in civilian helicopter terms are often kept less
efficient, in so far as the problem with light aircraft before the modern 4 seat STOLs since 2013 comparitively, the civilian helicopters are less powerful
(blade and pendulum strength too) and less maneuverable (weak), and often weather handling takes them !