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Australian Light aircraft domestic private personal usage requirements

'Home-built Kit Light Aircraft"

Article Link (PDF) : Fatigue and distance travel in Australia      YouTube: STOL Aircraft (video)







Amateur , experimental classification and "plans" or "kit" built legislation

Amateur built and experimental aircraft     Amateur-Built (ABAA) Aircraft — Certification (PDF)

CASR Part 21 - Certification and airworthiness requirements for aircraft and parts

Warning, there are few sensible kits for the practical purpose in the following catalog unless single lone personal use...bu' s'look !
USA kit catalog (PDF document [ !WARNING ] SIZE: "58 Megabyte")

Link: (article) Bearhawk Bravo STOL (rated 150 - 200 hp 4-cyl. - 6-cyl. 200 - 250 kg engine weight as fixed blade prop)
Link: (article) Bearhawk Propellor (fixed blade - 1100kg max. loading)
Link: (article) "propeller governors" (Constant speed Propeller)
Link: (PDF) "propeller governors" (operation)
Link: (PDF) 120 hp (6 -cyl. 100 kg weight approx.) piston single engine
* On that model more forward weight is needed with that 120 hp to equal the io-360 or io-540 so a squeezed plate and rubber and plate-bind to frame at the base on the partial fulcrum like pivot "steel pole" (at least 3 inch diameter and something like a 4.5mm wall and all double layer-triple run weld normalised) undercarriage stalk can be used with "26 inch-diameter x 13 inch wide"(economic) or "29-inch diameter x 14 inch wide"(best mash) Tundra tyres (bush tyre undercarriage). To gain enough forward weight to match an io-360 Lycoming (note a propeller governor and 42 inch radius composite variable pitch propeller is also part of the weight factor of using the 120 hp).
The "steel pole" undercarriage stalk will be around 1 meter long and require "no more than 5 cm (1.9685 inch) flex deformation at the loaded end, while being held/clamped at its base (no damage to its air-frame mounting base allowed) and the other end dangled with 800 kg per pole stalk (2x on a tail dragger).
Link: Example manual: Kit Building Avipro Bearhawk wings (PDF)   Link: Riveting (PDF)   Link: Oratex fuselage covering
Link: Kevlar fuselage covering (off-beat option or a method for some features)
BearHawk internals require to do sound proofing (Example products find-able):
Link: Car Sound Proofing Deadening Van Closed Cell Insulation Foam Mat (1)    Link: SUV Chassis Sound Proofing Kit Car Noise Reduce Sheet Damping Insulation (2)

This ([quote - blazing saddles]..."this bill gentlemen"...) particular kit aircraft is where cheapskate meets actual possibility and converts it to potentially achieve the desired outcome and make an expending cheapskate !

Things they didn't tell you (particularly unlicensed in uncontrolled air-space)

Use of the simplified geometry rules of "right angle triangles" and "quadrant (circles)" can almost allow safe take-off and landing on air-strips unknown to a pilot and by6 mental arithmetic.
Rule 1. The square of the Hypotenuse length , is equal to adding the squares of both its base and its upright sides together (of a right angle triangle only).
Rule 2. The angle of ascension of the Hypotenuse when the base and the upright side are both equal length is 45o
Rule 3. Therefore (theoretically as an example of a powerful engine light aircraft model to weight to power), from Rule 2, An upright side of half the base length is 22.5o
22.5 degrees (* something like) is the maximum climb angle many load carrying average piston single engine light-aircraft have upon leaving the air-strip, and if trees are 50 meters tall (at the end of the air-strip) such as some very old Poplar tree species or other tall species of tree. To hit the absolute top of the trees unsafely will mean leaving the ground 100 meters (2x the "tree height" because the upright side (trees) of a right angle triangle is half the length of the base from "the point on the the ground where the wheels leave the ground theoretically back from the trees" ), so it requires another 100 meters further back plus the origin 100 meters 100+100 (really only 100+50 further back) for the aircraft to leave the ground AND must also add aircraft model and weight requirement take-off roll distance (to be judged by the pilot) to give the aircraft correct takeoff speed for its weight before leaving the ground 150 - 200 meters from the trees. This gives the total ground-roll and climb distance FOR IT TO HAVE SAFE CLEARANCE OF THE TREES.
In summary, A light aircraft of properly powered STOL or a high end engine power fitted of model version light aircraft can takeoff at 22.5o (2x obstacle height as the moment of lift off minimum point 2:1) , A median engine powered model can take-off at 15o (3x obstacle height as the moment of lift off minimum point 3:1) , a low engine powered model or ultra-light / LSA at 11.25o (4x obstacle height as the moment of lift off minimum point 4:1) PLUS ground roll distance of model for current weight PLUS an extra 20 yards for powerful engine or STOL light aircraft and extra 50 yards added for low power light aircraft.

1. To see through the wind screen you will need to have a working demister whether summer or winter, weather and temperature do not operate the same way in the air as ground level dwelling !

2. Learn the mechanisms for delivering air to the cabin and their control position status and serviceability in any aircraft you will use or you could suffocate or become delerious and crash !

3. Most small light aircraft have "flaps" but some do not ! MOREOVER than that, flaps have the problem they usually have a few different level settings at least. This means that to properly and safely land or take-off you need to know the exact speeds that should be used as both minimum and maximum "for each setting level of the flaps". If you do not know these for the exact model of aircraft you use, unless you are very experienced you have a huge probability of crashing. The aircraft must maintain a tight band of correct speed for each flaps setting level !

4. Pointing the nose of the aircraft with the compass bearing you want to travel does not mean you are flying / traversing straight toward your destination, you can be drifting off course from cross wind. You need to setup your point on the horizon visibly with the compass bearing then switch to visibly heading to it without deviation of path for 5 minutes or so before re-checking the aircraft continues to head in the correct direction. So the centre static notch for directly forward on the outside of the compass body only tends to be showing how much "yaw" of the aircraft is occurring not the actual bearing when visibly heading toward the point on the horizon used for checking by watching there is no drift. At night you would continually realign up with the position of a star on the horizon every 5 minutes but MUST REMEMBER stars in the night sky "rotate through the sky as the earth spins"(subtle) out of place so you cannot simply re use the star again and again, you must find a new star or position suitable for stable alignment with the compass bearing then check the drifting off the bearing course for wind and re-align the flight visibly. (Hence having VOR equipment fitted and understanding it or nowadays GPS at least)

5. Engine speed does not operate quite the same way as a car, because of propeller structure the engine revs are accelerated sped up slowly and brought down slowly by moving the throttle slowly, there is generally no "acceleration port for rich fuel induction into the carburettor" for sudden engine speed and power increase unlike a petrol vehicle. When the prop is accelerated in RPM it is under massive stress that is almost irrelevant to the centrifugal forces of the spin, the acceleration forces are a completely different direction and not a safe to commit by massive sudden power, hence no acceleration port and requirement to increase rpm slowly and decrease rpm slowly.

6. The propeller speed is usually around 2700 - 3000 RPM maximum , some are structurally made to withstand higher rpm some are not. Most aircraft engines are straight through drive train so engine rpm matches prop rpm usually.

7. If you buy a light aircraft that is not a STOL you will need around 300 meters (984 feet) to safely land and take-off.

8. When bringing the aircraft in for landing, whether there is a fence or open space AND fence, to not impact wheels on the fence and crash, if the fence is near the end of the runway requires TWO PRE SETUP ACTIONS, a. aiming for the touchdown point on the runway 50 yards past the fence line, while simply using its height as a "mesh compound fence" (usually around 2.5 - and as much as 4 meters) b. travelling toward that point physically directly from at least a couple of hundred yards and from at least 100 - 150 feet altitude as starting point in a straight line that is also a very shallow dive of the nose toward that point 50 yards past the fence. * The split second moment the fence is past/passing the aircraft pull the nose up to normal horizontal flight quickly but gently (You should travelling low speed with full flaps , unless there is a strong cross-wind that will require faster flight speed and a less resistant flaps setting level)
For most, the whole point is to both pass the fence safely and be travelling at a speed that maintains flight and control to prevent aircraft altitude sudden sinking by a sudden tail wind gust or sliding from a heavy cross-wind gust of either of these could catch the wheels on the fence extremely unreasonably, but there are no second chances ! (note: when pulling to horizontal flight the height of the above ground from its' wheels should be at least 10 feet , and when an aircraft changes direction it loses some of its flight aerodynamic effectiveness and speed so may need a tweak more power to prevent descending too fast although subtle at that point).

9. A light aircraft cannot descend like a jet liner and cannot contact the ground when landing as violently a vertical speed of descent as a jetliner, A light aircraft should ALMOST be flown onto the runway because it can only descend onto the landing strip at a speed of no more than 3 feet per second maximum to not be committing some form of nominally hard landing, In any case (or however) while they can take heavier it is best to save the hard landings for cross wind landing when the aircraft "must land" for safety reasons of not continuing flight.

10. Piston engine AvGas and standard car fuel are very similar, however, in Australia it is a good idea to use engines set up for ordinary car fuel of a particular octane level if it is a STOL.

11. While aircraft manufacturers tout extremely short takeoff and landing runs with STOL planes, they have much longer take-off and landing runs at "maximum take-off weight" as "fully loaded"(fuel + persons + cargo). The heavier loaded the aircraft is the faster it will need to be travelling to take-off OR land, heavier requires higher speed and longer runway, lighter requires lower speed and less runway length. * However, strong cross winds require use of greater speed for take-off and landing whether light weight or fully loaded (* also note practice and experience with crosswind can be gained in a safe wide non dangerous environment close to ground level)
* Australia has an idiosyncratic form of cross-wind common to it, called "sawing wind". "Sawing wind" is wind that blows for brief short or prolonged gusts of seconds long then ceases blowing for a few second then repeats the brief short or prolonged gusts of seconds BUT COMING FROM THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION !
Sawing wind is generally not 180o opposing , more, 120o offline to opposites to 150o.

12. Never put an aircraft into a spin unless you have been trained, much less an aircraft with a short fuselage.

13. Always carry extra fuel 30 minutes beyond the time required for the complete duty of the quantity implemented. Not merely head winds causing high fuel consumption, BUT a blinder ! Restricted "NO-FLY zone" air- space can be assigned by government at any time a without warning and notification, the only warning is a "government forces" aircraft in-signifying as a directive of authority by its presence for your aircraft to change course and to use a particular route (always carry a mobile phone and 477 Mhz UHF-CB hand held 5 watt). Some people paint "things alike" UHF-CH23 in small letters half the size of what would be registration fonts on the side of their non registered aircraft (means 477MHz UHF CB channel 23 is listened into in the aircraft)

14. After slowing after landing (and slow enough to turn without tipping or when losing flight control from low speed after slowing after landing) or while taxi-ing in heavy wind gusty conditions particularly , if the aircraft is being blown over point the aircraft nose away from the wind (back/tail pointing into wind) and keep upright with ailerons by using OPPOSITE control stick movement for ailerons. (various aircraft model instruction manuals show or tutorialise ground handling movements)


STOL tyres (a requirement here and now in 2018):

There are no reliable landing strips in quantity in Australia, So first a STOL that takes off under 120 meters full loading, HOWEVER, "TYRES" , because of judging a sensible strip (simply unobstructed open space and 2 times the takeoff / landing distance) there can be some leftover weather results on the ground such as "mud and slurry" , a large diameter wheel "almost" handles this, but it actually should be at least 26 inches (better 29 inch) Diameter and "minimum 12 inch WIDTH" to handle mud and prevent sudden sinkage that would cause nose planting(diameter only does that partially).
The diameter of the wheel prevents holes in the ground such as dugout nests and soft patches from causing a wheel to get caught.
One more feature to understand is that the large width and diameter tyres will lower "safe rated cruise speed" if fitted, so for speed around 26 inch diameter x 12 inch wide is the smallest squeeze size against collapsed rabbit or wombat holes.
Bearhawk (4 place) article "model B" STOL (PDF)     ( "Safe" required size STOL bush wheel     (PDF) Tundra bushwheel fitting info     (PDF) Tundra bushwheel maintenance info )
Of tyres and of such a diameter size is having to shorten the struts to lower the drag but causes worry about propeller strike from a flat !
The following product is a special anti-flat sealant and will not require actual balancing although to distribute it properly after input to the tyres will require some strange appearance driving up and down your private paddock strip a few times of 100 meters each day for 3 days and first one instantly after insetting.
(YouTube video)Anti-puncture sealant

Crankshafts , engines (some real issues to be aware of):

Hartzell propellor list USD

Crankshafts in engines and a replacement after "prop strike whereby a problem called dialing occurs" is often half what second hand private offered engines or partial engines are about ! The other is engine hours nearing overhaul TBO.
The small numbers ( e.g. 0.010 ) mentioned with crankshafts are usually thousands of inch (SAE / Imperial measurement) for bearing clearance runner ware, or partial degrees of dialing (bent off center / circumference) or "lumpiness" (non uniform) circular-ness of the crankshaft (and crankcase) bearing runner surface relating its axis (whether it is circle oval or lumpy), best ask what "measurement unit" and context it is.
So "dialing" is the action by a mechanic at taking measurements on the crankshaft using a "micrometer" and reading the "dial-gauge".
However, its' purpose is to find damage more often than ware, so "dialing is also a single word cliche' that exists" referring to the measurements from sudden engine stoppage such as propeller strike or oil loss / oil pressure loss seizure (any crankshaft internal combustion piston engine car truck or aircraft) because the crankshaft can also be bent angular offline from a massive shock "along the line" from "circular motion" alike dialing a telephone and "sending a message" as a shock down the to other end of the line!
While some prop strike engines that have been checked get a yellow tag for the crankshaft you will find the check only had .001 (one thousandth of an inch) , .002 (two thousandths of an inch) at worst as eccentricity, anything more than a few thousandths of an inch is starting to be heavy damage !
It is generally a good idea to replace the slipper bearings on the crankshaft after such an event.

Another point to note about prop strike, is that one of the main features that is a difference to an aircraft to a road vehicle engine is that an aircraft engine has a propeller axle with a single bearing set to hold the weight of the aircraft !
A fully loaded 4 seat light aircraft above ultra-light can weigh around two tonnes, so the bearing set on that axle must take all the loadings, but, however, can be damaged during a prop strike incident.
Other differences of aircraft engines (piston) with a road vehicle engine apart from aircraft engines being half the weight,
Aircraft engines have an either impeller or a centrifugally engaged clutch whether geared between the crankshaft and propeller or direct driven.
Aircraft engines usually have a "dry sump" and more than one oil pump to scavenge oil from the sump.
Aircraft engines have an oil reservoir tank and an oil cooler in their lubrication and cooling mechanism of operation, this is why an "oil temperature" gauge can often be found in aircraft instrument consoles.
Aircraft engines sometimes have a "pre-ignition oil pump" (good point if it's an airworthy propeller strike engine).
[ ! Unless you are educated and aptly capable of repairing and overhauling an internal combustion engine of various types it is not a good idea to buy either a repairable propeller strike engine neither an engine either requiring or nearing mandatory overhaul ]

Finally, a properly operating engine is generally 25k reconditioned to 35k depending age and model.
The following mentioned engines are quite large cylinder displacement when you think about Australian vehicles of the 1960's , so why !?
If you were to want a 200 HP engine today for a car or boat it would be around 2.5 litres displacement , HOWEVER, with a piston engine for aircraft it is a massive 500 cubic inch thereabout to produce 200 hp!
The reason is thing called torque by built up flywheel inertia from engine RPM (often measure ft-lb - "foot pound" or Nm "Newton meters" / "Kg/m") . Most piston engines in light aircraft are straight through or direct connected drive train to the propeller.
Because of that 1:1 drive ratio without gearing, the optimum maximum RPM the propeller harnesses air is 2500 RPM and the engine must be then spinning at that RPM (usually during takeoff for that RPM). So the aircraft engine will probably never be used at much more than 3000 RPM.
A car or truck however using top gear (straight through drive) can use 4000 - 5000 RPM that stores the inertia in its flywheel more economically to produce Horse-Power.

To recap and make the point better about proper STOL aircraft design since 2013, Here is a 4 seat aircraft (Vans RV-10) with a 235 - 260 HP motor and its takeoff roll at just on 1 tonne compared with these, the "Bearhawk Model-B" or alike a "Murphy Yukon" or alike a "Dream Tundra (160 - 240hp)", all STOL.
The roll being around 109 meters for the RV-10 with 235 hp, but with the STOL aircraft at around 1 and a half tonne (1500Kg) fully loaded they remain under 100 meters takeoff roll with horse-powers between 160hp and 240hp !
The STOL also climb at a lower speed and are safer and more responsive during this critical phase , however, the standard aerodynamics of the Vans requires higher speeds for control and stability.
All in all the Vans RV-10 is alike the Bearhawk original design 240hp, it is near a short takeoff aircraft but not actually, and requires higher horse-power to achieve a "similar appearance to a STOL" characteristic, but unfortunately it is the aerodynamics that give it the feature, that and STOL are a little difficult to fly at speed because the actions must all occur more gentle because of the response !

(1) IO-540 IO-360 engine information     (2) IO- 540 IO-360 engine information

(PDF) Continental 470 series engines     (PDF) Continental 520 series engines     (PDF) Lycoming IO-540 engine information

A Crankshaft     Crankshaft bearings measurement     Crankshaft runout     Crankshaft dialing - runout and teardown

(PDF download) CASA Propeller Strike Guidelines - bulletin     (PDF) Crankshaft specialists (foreign) "workshop services example"

Aviation parts tagging  . Aircraft aeronautical abbreviations  . Obstacles and Flaps


Private light aircraft flight training and licenses


Self importing kits internationally as the customs broker

Many of the links following in the red box require a PDF reader
What stops homebuilt light aircraft being built (aside cost) :
1. Nowhere sensible, safe (OHS) and secure with enough space (a couple of feet larger than the constructed aircraft size in any direction) to build it
(particularly the immense toxicity of paint and glues)
2. Nowhere to take off and land and acceptable legal usage airspace to use it
3. Nowhere to store it while not in use
4. No tools (or not the correct tools) to build it with
(5) It can be said that most people do not commit being their own customs broker with importation to port for ACBPS for tariffs and GST
==== for example from the "duty rates applied book Schedule 3" in "rates of duty payable list" Dept. Home Affairs , these two numbers, the "reference number" with its statistical code must be filled in on the N10 import (B374) form example (PDF document)
Warning: This must all be done over VPN closed business internet (ICS) with Personal digital certificate and CCID requiring (EOI) check from Australia post for the online digital certificate authority issuer for you to obtain the “Type-1 individual digital certificate” (not other authentication systems offered) (PDF document link) to use in the ACBPS ICS(Integrated Cargo System) within time frames specified by ACBPS and notified with the correct information 48 hours prior to vessel arrival before the goods reach Australia !
Generally goods that do not fill a container are carried by cargo ships as Break Bulk (BK) to a port (You can learn all this in the DIY off grid article int his site - NOTE i am to re-update(repair) many links in the pages)
NOTE: "8802.20.00" is a complete aircraft fully constructed NOT parts (e.g. kits).
Tariff code "reference number" 8802.20.00   ,   "statistical code" 05 | - Aeroplanes and other aircraft, of an unladen weight not exceeding 2 000 kg
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.10.00   ,   "statistical code" 10 | - Propellers and rotors and parts thereof
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.20.00   ,   "statistical code" 11 | - Under-carriages and parts thereof
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.20.00   ,   "statistical code" 12 | - Other parts of aeroplanes or helicopters
Tariff code "reference number" 8803.90.00   ,   "statistical code" 13 | - Other

Helicopters "8802.11.00" and "8802.12.00" are complete helicopters! and "helicopter parts thereof" are with "aeroplane parts" in much the same layout in the schedule 3 table
NOTE: Duty payable may be free , HOWEVER, GST must be paid !
Yes! (that solves that little question) exchange rate is reasonably instant at the moment of transaction !
Also, international bank transfer by TT(Tele Transfer) , the "exchange rate" is usually 1 cent more(worse) than the standard published exchange rate against AUD as a normative, and your bank usually will require you to have a few thousand left over in the account at minimum for such larger transaction "as per banking company banking policy".
Unless the selling company offers "CIF (Cost Insurance Freight)" trade deal terms to an Australian port, you will need to find an Australian import sea freight forwarding company that also operates an office in the "product country of origin" to hire to obtain and load the product on behalf of you and probably manage the TT transaction in some form!
Link: Steps of importing heavy weight goods "sea cargo import"
NOTE: The following document has a minor error at mentioning "N30 release" that is only for extradited goods in "a warehouse or factory AS foreign zone on Australian secured zoning NOT standard or normal action of importation. e.g. comes into an N30 factory , is assembled and then placed on a ship and leaves to a foreign destination.
Link: comprehensive step by step example of importation (PDF)
[NOTE: Customs clearance pickup area requires knowing the areas and zones of the port: There is a truck marshaling area , but it is secure and only allowed at allocated time] Normally a load of batteries at 2 tonne weight costs AUD 1500 - AUD 2500 to freight alone, but, If you have a normal class "C" drivers license you can hire/rent a 4.5Tonne GVM van with tail lift for something like AUD 1000 for three days or less for 24 hours ***ONTIME HIRE BOOKING IS A PROBLEM HERE - pickup must be done within an hour of being notified or customs warehouse and port penalty rates will apply ! (if batteries and kit arrive the same day or near to you can wait and pay p/day dock rent(arrange first) , as much if your kit totals less or probably near 3 tonne with batteries you can use a 3 tonne van or truck), allowing pick-up at the docks after all customs inspection and dock / handling fees GST and Tariff are paid online over the ACBPS secure VPN (ICS) Integrated Cargo System application.] * Other required equipment is a pallet-jack-trolley , heavy rope, padding carpet patches and three able bodied people.

Link: (PDF) If there is some form of different approach...

Solve these problems first in some safe efficient permanent way and then acquiring a kit home-building the aircraft can occur!


Construction materials, machines, tools, "plans building" and the "meaning of the word KIT"


At he very heart of some of these aircraft is construction from AKA "raw resources" with materials and industrial tools called plans building
To "plans build" (or called scratch building) you must obtain all the raw materials specified in the drawings by yourself ! , and interpret the drawings correct , yourself !
Here is what you will see when you buy the plans only, for finding the raw resources yourself (to the effect of...) A. (PDF) Engineering Drawings: Detail Drawings or B. AS 1100 Part 201 - Mechanical Engineering Drawing

CNC machining of aircraft aluminium to make some complex shapes such as "airfoil wing riblets" may well be an option for some people if they can spend 3k to 5k AUD on a CNC aluminium cutting machine system of "at least 1200mm x 1200mm", However, above this size they then start to become expensive (for lack of better way of saying it) !
If you can spend around 50K to build an aircraft, CNC machine would be an ideal negligible cost to account into it.
1200mm x 1200mm (1.2 meters) gets you the ability to turn long parts of (e.g. 2300mm (2.3 meters) length) around on the CNC bench and run a cut A to B with a "second software map"(for another cut run) of the other end of a part on the same sheet, BUT must be set up on the CNC bench carefully to retain the absolute accuracy of the shape and cutting run !

The dividend benefit is however, time (from lower preparation and refining requirements) and accuracy of curves !
CNC machines use a standard computer with CNC software and CNC control box to cut the material on a the machines' bench.
The software is given a special graph map with the cutting run coordinates to follow to cut in a line from A (start) to B (end) inside the machine reach boundary of the bench. X axis and Y axis are two dimensional and not all machine have Z axis ability, but with Z axis are often used for wood carving (and maybe Bearhawk Patrol (all wood aircraft) riblets).

WARNING ! If you intend to build from "blue-print plans" and or with materials requiring welding using an electric welding system, "you must disconnect and remove the battery alternator and disconnect all other electricals including earthing wire if these are present on the vehicle" when welding e.g. sensor probes and RDAC e.t.c.

TIG Welding (simple tutorial)   Metal Arc welding (tutorial)

MAPP gas welding (Certainly good for and cheaper than oxy for post weld final joint "N"ormalizing of the steel to toughness rather than brittle)

MAPP-Oxy Set weld Normalising and pre-heat( This is the type of kit for many if they will normalize and spend on deoxidizing filler wire and flux for 4130N )

(PDF) BOC torch welding guide     [ link: wire torch weld joint flux for Chrome moly steel ]     link: Playlist - Aircraft parts and tools

WARNING ! Using "MAPP gas torch" is not suitable substitute for safe-welding "4130 (AKA moly-chrome mild steel)" because of the weld brittleness being chemical (from hydrogen) not heat stress temper induced !, HOWEVER, After welding properly with any suitable of proper "flux shielding" (inert gas / arc stick covered or Acetylene assistant powder) "MAPP gas torch" is suitable to commit "stress relieving of the weld (lowering brittleness of the weld)" called “normalizing” outside of an oven. The “N” in the name 4130N Moly chrome steel means “normalized”.
This is a standard Oxy-Acetylene procedure often taught to non qualified Oxy welders, It is done by allowing the weld to cool back to room temperature in its' own time , then use the MAPP or Oxy-Acetylene torch to heat the weld and its edge surrounds up to a level that is not able to be seen red-hot by weaving side to side over the weld moving along before the area quite reaches red hot, then leaving to re-cool, then repeating the whole procedure a tiny piece faster a second time at least.(this should be done after the initial arc welding also) NOTE: DO NOT quench (cooling dip) any steel and its weld or it will be extremely brittle and hence unsafe for aircraft fabricating ! TOO, when normalising a weld with torch it must be an oxygen bottle combined pair system NOT atmosphere supplied burner torch !
Not a process for aluminium, aluminium is not crystallite composition !

WARNING ! Oxy Acetylene is an "extremely dangerous gas welding system" requiring "valid levels of operator knowledge" and "SHOULD NOT be committed by an untrained person", if it is required get training from TAFE institute first !

A quick note about TIG welding safety, as with arc welding, there is the danger of electrocution, but with TIG it has a couple of extra hazards, 1. The filler rod is held in the opposite hand to the tungsten electrode torch, requiring ―industry electrical safe TIG gloves‖ mandatory to not be electrocuted (also a sensible idea for MIG and Arc too). 2. Too, the TIG machine hand-piece (or a MIG) in some countries may not be particularly up to electrical weld quality safety insulation standard so it is better to acquire a couple of pairs of industry standard TIG glovesfrom a first world industrial country such as Derby or Redcar, Munich or Dortmund, Detroit, Charlotte or Pittsburgh, Wollongong or Newcastle on either side of the world. For TIG steel welding , the most common shield gas is Argon. (fluxes for application purpose may be used also).

For fools that do not get basic training first…

Oxy-Acetylene is the favored method for 4130N steel (and can be used for aluminum), HOWEVER, (Acetylene handling is quite dangerous compared to MAPP gas) it requires to be trained first BUT is OK because the Acetylene welding training does not need to result in a certification, only an acceptable result of proficient knowledge BUT SHOULD BE COMPLETED FOR SAFETY finally, and is for most SPECIAL ACETYLENE SYSTEM USE SAFETY !!! (Google TAFE colleges)

The Acetylene gas welding safety is in basiss (the most common reason permanent injury or explosions occur):
And this ... Link: [ Oxy Acetylene Welding Part 1 - Aviation Videos ] Oxy Acwtylene Welding equipment setup and check

Note: Some kits sold commercially do not have flash back arrestors for both regulators and both hose feeds, neither do they have the last 4 small size steel welding tips of which it is common to require to add sizes anyhow for sensible use and results (choose and acquire wisely)!

  • "Acetylene gas" "cylinders" must always be stored, used and transported IN UPRIGHT POSITION ORIENTATION.
  • Regulator valve of "Acetylene gas bottle" must NEVER be caused to exceed 100Kpa (14 Psi), (note; when cutting tip used pressures are usually different to each other.)
  • NEVER! "cross thread" a gas bottle regulator onto the gas bottle when installing it (neither its’ flash back arrestors or any other parts of the system). Most common symptom of this occurring is "leaking gas"! and also permanent regulator damage!
  • Never use or expose grease or other lubricants or solvents to either the regulator or the gas bottle "bolting / joiner threads" under any circumstance (or on any other system part).
  • Before work commences check all lines, torch-mixer fittings and other line parts such as flash back arrestors are in good condition, properly fastened and operative.
  • NEVER forcefully close or operate any valve part of the acetylene welding system, e.g. open or close torch handle valves gently leaving the seal to stop the gasses not crushing force!
  • Before work commences purge the Acetylene line for a short period/moment with new acetylene.
  • Always switch the acetylene ―(hand piece )torch valve‖ ON first and light without oxygen.
  • Always switch the Acetylene torch valve OFF first, then switch off the oxygen.
  • Always adjust the gas bottle pair’s regulators "to the correct consumption pressure for" the "flame tip nozzle size".
  • Acetylene gas bottles are made in industry standard sizes of contents, but because of the special storage material INSIDE an acetylene cylinder to allow the acetylene gas to be stored safely under high pressure, ONLY a particular maximum consumption rate of gas (regulator pressure) for "a period of time of in use"can occur safely! This is determined by both gas bottle size and pressure used allowed accord with appliance tip gas drainage (see tool manufacturers nozzle tip charts and bottle size charts calculations) !!! (largest movable cylinder size is best here, "cutting tips are not required" for kit building light aircraft reasonably exclusively smaller end weld nozzles) The cylinder acetate-acetylene contents must be allowed to readjust-reabsorb for a lay-off period before use can continue safely. (industry usually uses massive cylinder bank rooms for this reason to be able to cut heavy steel plate for more than one minute (shall we imply…). Single largest bottle kits for workshops are actually quite small in continuous welding time terms). ** If the torch makes a snap! Snap! sound (small popping explosions) you have probably either finally run out of gas pressure in the bottle OR got the wrong pressures through the regulator OR the acetylene bottle is oriented illegally in some way other than upright !
  • Never leave a torch alight while attending to some other task or activity for a moment or greater period of time (but can be held a short time temporarily by a responsible sane competent person pre-assigned to assisting in the welding work), always switch the torch off completely before diverting concentration (e.g. mobile phone), and NEVER leave the torch alight in a bench vice , clamp e.t.c. unless it is directly in use at the time as part of the process to manufacture (switch off the torch to obtain another piece from beyond seated distance). * Using a vice to hold the torch hand piece is neither recommended nor a safe practice! And never leave unattended when lit!

Other concerns of risks and hazards of welding safety such as ventilation, other safety equipment can obtained in online tutorials and their safety guide publications for “welding of all types” , too, first aid, first aid kits and chemical handling with MSDS knowledge may be needed to know for some building methods of kit light aircraft.

Link: Oxy welding kit parts

CIG Oxy Weld kit (note the Flash back arrestors for regulators AND handpiece in this one)

Another warning about welding ! Raw materials such as steel or Aircraft Aluminium grade types sometimes have "cladding", an "unprepared resource PERMANENT bonded cover material(usually another cheap non reactive metal) over the sheet or pipe product" to protect the surface of the sheeting or other raw(unprepared) metal resource and must either be cleaned off by machining or it may not be able to be used in that circumstance because it would derogate the weld strength joint of two joined sections of material.
See your plans notes information for the exact requirements of grades and types of metal and its allowed "variants" for each part to form and construct !
Also ! USA and Australia as Europe and many countries , have different "lookup indexing number references" for types and grades and variants of steel or Aircraft Aluminium.
E.G. Aircraft aluminium , "4041 T3" , "6061 T6" , "2024" series Alloys (note: Welding any of these requires the exact correct "flux" and "filler alloy" and use of the correct "shield gas")
Both "Acroduster Too SA750" (Aerobatic + Agricultural) and the "BearHawk 4 place" types (Cargo + Domestic) have wings that are for most percentage made from these grades of Aircraft Aluminium. (Note Bearhawk Patrol is all wood aircraft 2 place cargo)

WARNING about the meaning of the word "kit" and totals "look closely" "examine carefully" (NOTE "TOO" with International freight NOTHING IS EVER FREE)
(anyone kit set requires other kits to finish it, an aircraft is in sets for sections of it)
Moroever "wiring and instruments" are almost a separate non supplied to any manufacturer and not part of any pricing shown by any manufacturer! (5K AUD for instruments for use in non controlled air space only is easily the max - paint and painting tools is around another 1K, ordinary tools can be around 1K, transport of kits "from Australian ports" can be up to 3K)

Moreover again, "making a hangar first" means having the land size location situation and requires steel welding and concreting to construct a gale force proof hangar (a few of feet higher than the highest possible point of the aircraft -re tail-dragger propeller and a couple of feet longer than the longest dimension of the aircraft)!
One other feature is "construction degree of difficulty" , some are almost materials and plans , be sure what your total expenditure and kit "sets of" checksum will finally produce after searching and choosing to buy 4 seat kits (4 seat are usually too heavy to be LSA but 4 seat is what you need for viable useful remote kept "VH" vehicle or remote home or difficult access home) !

Just a quick note! If you ever get an aircraft, "ground handling" on a windy day is required to be understood, there is a quantity of carefulness and control use to prevent light aircraft from tipping or being knocked over by wind gusts !
They do not simply stay upright because you're on the ground!
Always commit "tie down" with the tie down links the moment not in use, and park it directly pointing its tail into the forecast and present wind!
The investment would be too huge to lose!

Link: Kit twin engine example(kit) (Velocity V-Twin 4 seat)
Link: (Velocity V-Twin 4 seat) News Article (1800ft - 500m ground roll)
Link: Kit (Velocity V-Twin 4 seat) specs (PDF)

Link: AeroCanard kit Single engine example(kit) FG (or RG) 4 seat (nb: too long a take-off roll for Australia)

The following (chipper) is ONLY noted here as an EXAMPLE

of the mildly fiddly nature of putting together an aircraft from kit and not much relevance except understanding its facets to examine carefully in documentation and costing, Belite is much more suited to aerial mustering not as a light aircraft.
Link: Here is another two seat kit STOL "Chipper" from a US company called Belite for around(finally) 50K AUD (i have found a web page on the net that near misrepresents Belite and the aircraft as Autralian)

Link: Here is the Belite "Chipper" kit acquirement "sets" pricing list break-down, i don't wish to bother here with two seat documents info much to make example of the complexity of how obtaining the parts is, but the document (PDF) is cleanly written and displayed and a good introduction if you bother to view it

Link: This parts listing document description (PDF) for the Belite Chipper is a good "introductory view" also

You need to be aware,

"Kits almost invariably never have any flight instruments or flight instrument parts, and no engine", kits often (usually) are in two to three separate "kits" , meaning, main body and packages, or main body - packages and wings.
Then often another "separate" kit to buy for it called a "finishing kit" (sometimes called "Firewall-Forward kit") - the nose cowling matching the engine and its structural engine mount frame
Control linkages and matching propeller system altogether.
An initial "complete set of" totals (sum of the parts to make the whole cohesively matching) is the bare minimum to build.
Always understand what you require to order and the total will be for what you pay to have a "complete" aircraft to finally construct and fly! (USD , AUD or other currency to convert and pay and also shipping cost along with terms such as CIF (shipping insurance is a good idea)).

* (Important) Aircraft fuel systems and fuel operation:

Fuel injection:
Lycomin fuel injection servos     Example manufacturer servo models listing     Example manufacturer support manual inf

It is suggested that you ensure your fuel tank has booster pump and the carburetor system (whether "actual carburetor" or "fuel inject air inlet throat") has heating system, too, fuel injection is a better safer process than "actual carburetor" - carburetor heating (so called / named) is used on the air inlet on fuel injected systems not simply carburetors to prevent ice forming if conditions such as that occur !
Link: Important - read this US FAA fuel system requirements (PDF)
"Actual carburetor" has a fuel bowl (relating gravity - just like a soup bowl on dining table) with a small quantity of fuel in it that is fed to the air inlet by suction. "Fuel Injection" (AVGAS or ordinary car fuel) has an injector nozzle protruding into the air inlet "so called" carburetor throat suction stream with electronically metered pumped fuel but suction does not actually deliver any fuel and fuel is not exposed to gravity and aircraft angles during injection, only the fuel tank is exposed to these circumstances that can cut off fuel !
Link: Aviation Carburetor online presentation
Link: Basic carburetor induction system
Link: FAA USA Aircraft power plant detailed introduction (PDF)
Link: QZ and A

link: (PDF) AVGAS and UL 91 Unleaded fuel - approved engines - (CASA - 003.pdf) Pump gas , mogas , 100LL , Ethanol , high octane "Engines"

link: (PDF) Lycoming UL91 approved engine models list

Lycoming web article about Avgas and unleaded in their engines: links: P1    P2    P3

One more feature to remember to ask the manufacturer, is whether both "anti-ice system" and "carburetor heat system" are supplied as standard systems, "they are actually quite required" in Australia!
Large STOL wheel "wide / large tyre" rough terrain undercarriage is also a requirement because Australia has few non VH ordinary kept landing strips and if everybody read this and bought aircraft it would probably not be until year 2025 the government would see need to move its fat lazy butt to put in more uncontrolled landing strips!
Presuming Barge Arse assesses it.

Light Aircraft Kits to bother with for 4 seat and cargo note: in this section bushplane refers to near capability or ability to convert it

Link: (STOL + bushplane CH-801 4 seat) Here is a perfect example again of how "kits and types" are broken down into "sets" and "options" and those sets sometimes may only be relevant to some countries (look for the words "NOT INCLUDED"), moreover, it seems there is not much mention of where to get cockpit instrumentation,
but can probably be modeled for Australian requirements from a Jabiru "VH" suitable type such as J430 4 seat

Link (PDF): Jabiru J430 kit sets parts list see: "Standard Inclusion"-instrumentation (note: "a" VHF radio is Australian "air band" GA spectrum)

Link: Zenith instrument kits

Although it may be thought that with the "finishing kit" and other "finishing parts" there is a propeller (depends whether it is a separate item and usually is for special reasons, choices),
It is a good idea to understand that there is better efficiency from some propellers such as "three blade", for example, the Murphy moose is actually sold with two blade and wide bladed more modern prop blade design, but for such as Australia better efficiency and takeoff power usage a three blade is more of a "must"(where possible).
Apart aircraft "fitting" , choice of another propeller is a "must" for Australia to reliably take-off shortest every time and cruise when harnessing the engine power.
Propeller "diameter against undercarriage suspension movement ground strike" and "weight" are the two main limiting factors in obtaining a different propeller, but it is best to account your economics for using "at least a three blade propeller" for any light aircraft you buy (never two blade if you can avoid that somehow).
Some two blade propeller systems are more efficient than the older standard two blade design and it is best to understand if these are actually suitable on any aircraft because of the need for Horse Power harnessing for efficiency.

To be sensible at explaining and help here, normally a STOL kit for 4 seat will be standard around 120(130 max) to 150(not quite able to be called STOL but near) meters takeoff distance, here's a USA kit with the same types of point of broken down "choices of sets" or "pure plans"(warning, but adhere to materials specification) can be used.
Link: Bearhawk 4 seat kit aircraft (Original “A” standard 4-seat model – 200 - 500 ft roll modifiable to a bushplane – note: Model Bravo is a 4 seat STOL + bushplane)
Note: to understand the (shall we say) "final economic cost will be", that any aircraft engine is around 20K - 30K dollars "at least" usually (bare price Overhauled).
The following article has quite some wisdom inside it
Link: Super cub comparison (STOL + bushplane)
To assist at where to look, and "what may ever be a good sensible idea" for use in the Australian environment and personal or business life here is link to a general kit listing site
Link: Aircraft kits list
There are many good kit aircraft all over the world that are generally never found on any web site except their own. so deciding price for usability to practicality could take a few months of research itself just to short list! (as a wise man in South Park once said ..."ooh...i'm staying out of this on"...)
But here is another in the genre of 4 seat STOL (the requirement for Australia - 4 seats is not merely use for family but extra unexpected cargo weight)
Link: (USA) Backcountry Boss 4 seat bush aircraft (STOL + bushplane)
..."One more feature to remember to ask the manufacturer, is whether both "anti-ice system" and "carburetor heat system" are supplied as standard systems, "they are actually quite required" in Australia!"...
Link: (CAnada - Quebec) Dream Tundra kit STOL 4 seat (STOL + bushplane)

Link: (CAnada - Quebec) "Levitation 4" Tapanee Aviation 4 seat (STOL)

Link: (USA FL) BD-4C 4 seatNot a STOL – Not a bushplane” BD-4C is here only for the point of people whom require a high speed commute light aircraft and would use a light aircraft on “prepared runways grass or other of home field and minor airports and alike” such as business persons traveling between major cities.

Link: (CAnada - British Colombia) Murphy Yukon 4 seat (STOL + bushplane)

Link: (CAnada - British Colombia) Murphy Moose "M14P - 600ft ground roll" (other is 800 neither actually STOL but a basic bushplane with good speed and cargo)
Link: Vedeneyev M14P (360 HP)
Link: about Vedeneyev M14P (360 HP) and PF

NEW SINCE JUST BEFORE 2020 Link: "Model 5 Bearhawk" 6 seat kit aircraft STOL ability modifiable to a bushplane
6 seat - 300hp
Max cruise 75% power @ 165 knots
Wing span: 34 feet / 10.36 meters

The Jabiru J430 Australian built kit aircraft made in Bundaberg Queensland is "not quite a STOL" (as some spurious site touted it can have a take-off roll of 150m although i have never found this so short in any of Jabiru's documentation) because of its landing gear not being wide heavy terrain tyres that would cut back its cruising and maximum never-exceed-speed.
It is unsuitable for runways that are rough or unprepared, however (according to some sites documents) it does sport a take-off of roll of 150 meters (that does not appear to be true).
Apparently the J430 and J230-D have the same fuselage but it would be a sensible point to understand Australia and the lack of support at landing and using light aircraft needs to have 120 meters as maximum ground roll fully loaded in a four seater with heavy terrain undercarriage for take-off landing at that maximum distance along with the NVFR specifications and bad weather de-icing spec too.
Storching along from here....
The Canadian's have done it (a couple of homebuild kit versions), the Czechs have done it(one homebuild kit version), the yanks have done it (a couple of homebuild kit versions), However, what stinks is neither Australia nor Soth Efferika have done it (heavy terrain, high visibility NVFR bad weather STOL with under 120 meter rolls).


Light Aircraft cockpit Instrumentation and critical systems

Of this previous point of "country of supplier" and "cockpit instruments", it is a good idea to know the full electrical requirements for the instruments AND the aircraft's "voltage regulator output specifications/parameters".

As you can imagine, an "option or package" of cockpit instrumentation may also need to be in the "correct language" e.g. English.
But there is a point to this mention here. Each instrument will have lighting and (maybe as with VHF two way radio or transponders) other potential components that require "a quantity of electric current" and "a specific operational voltage".

To put it succinctly, both the current (amperes) level and the voltage (V) require control to prevent damage or starvation (blackout or power fade) to the instruments and other electrical accessories.
In every type of vehicle (road air or water) electrical supply circuit between instruments, consoles, radios or lighting bulbs (powerful or tiny) is a device called a voltage regulator !

(a) The spark plug with its electrical timing and transformer
(b) The starter motor

Everything else must be supplied correct voltage and amperage from an off-shoot circuit from the "voltage regulator(s)" !
Too again, "instruments and consoles e.t.c. that could go into a range of electrical parameter situations of voltage and amperage" that operate from some "remote" (isolated enclosed) power source such as a battery and alternator in a vehicle sometimes have at the back either different socket points for different voltages or a multi step setting switch with so marked voltages.

***** While an EFIS can be obtained at the cheaper end of a pricing system, The display size will be too small for many people to use for so much information , it does not mean it can be co-wired for zooming onto a larger LCD display stand alone or run from the machine by adapter.
"Consider using a larger expensive EFIS" or at least an EFIS with display output port and signal to larger (computer type LCD screen standalone) LCD screen output and wired in power supply (see voltage regulator section) that allows use with a computer LCD display that can be mounted in the instrument panel.
However, to use an ordinary computer LCD console will require probably 2Kg more of "12/24/48v (whichever the aircraft power system battery uses) to AC 240v inverter" and its "240v mains power source transformer" (usually supplied retail with the unit). If possible you should see about LCD consoles of similar shape that operate from such vehicle DC power supplies directly too.
The final difficulty ! , LCD displays often consume at least 100 watt of current which translates in amperage to "12v 8.3 amps" (100w 24 equals 4.15 amps) (12v 200w equals 16.6 amps, 24v 200w equals 8.3 amps), so again, the correct circuit and voltage regulator is important to map. That's the same as one or two landing lamps, so the/a voltage regulator will need to balance that for the alternator, but the alternator must be able to produce the maximum constant consumable wattage/current required.

Link: (A) PITOT operated digital avionics instrument system
Link: (B) PITOT operated digital avionics instrument system (PDF manual)
Link: (C) GPS reciever to interface to PITOT EFIS
Link: RDAC engine sensors array manager for "compatible matching" iEFIS (not EFIS)
Link: RDAC unit installation (DOC)
Link: RDAC example installation manual (PDF)
Link: RDAC with dedicated screen for most sensors
Link: Article - Cylinder Temperature Indicators CTI - EGT
Link: Lycoming RDAC, and engine sensor fitting (PDF)
Link: Lycoming oil Temperature sender sensor installation locations
Link: (PDF) Lycoming operators Manual for you to muse
Link: Lycoming oil temperature and physical oil cooler system diagram / troubleshoot
Link: RDAC for fuel injected engines with MAP Manifold Absolute Pressure
Link: (article) PITOT static system
Link: (article) PITOT static system (see image diagram of heated PITOT)
Link: PITOT probe - heated
Link: PITOT probe mount and gaskets
Link: PITOT static tubes Link: PITOT static tubes "installing"
Link: (PDF) PITOT static tubes "installing and parts (brand generic)"

And for setup of navigation equipment:
Link: Australian Geomagnetic Reference Field Values calculator
Link: Types of "North" (True, Magnetic, Grid)
Link: Geocentric Datum of Australia manuls for the magnetic inclination if you'd ever nee it
Link: Mapping coordinate formats
Link: Online mapping example coordinates for Mercator "Hours Minutes Seconds", "Decimal Mercator", "Degrees and decimal minutes", and "Universal Trans Mercator (UTM) zones"
Link: Convert between NATO UTM and "H M S" (Degrees Minutes Seconds)
Link: Types of Aviation Altitude
Link: Aviation Meteorology tutorial
Link: Aviation aeronautical chart reading
Link: Weather map reading
Link: Weather map interpretation
Link: Airservices Australia and BOM - "Live" Aerodrome weather Cameras at bearing angles
Link: Aerodrome forecast map info BOM
Link: Aviation weather services


Vehicle electrics (12v,24v,48v)

As above before the previous links... ...Everything else must be supplied correct voltage and amperage from an off-shoot circuit from the "voltage regulator(s)" !... (note: some regulators have various maximum load output terminal sets for better balance distribution)

If you add a component (e.g. lights or instrument or console known often electrically as a "load") to a circuit you must assess the total current draw of all added components and ad "a suitable correct current and voltage voltage regulator unit" for the extra current(amperes) draw "loading".
Adding powerful landing lights are a huge clue, such added equipment are always installed in vehicles with their own "separate voltage regulator in a completely isolated circuitry" with the battery and alternator ! If you need the aircraft to be IFR compatible and ad landing lights, you will need to consult an aviation electrician for light aircraft unless the required packages are accounted for to the aircraft kit supplier in total along with the kit (for you to order, use and "new pricing") !

Some components only print Voltage and "watts" consumed on the back of a load / component!
So if Voltage is a constant power rating of a circuit,
and amperes is the actual electricity throughput drainage of the electrical source,
WHAT is wattage !?
"wattage" is an expression of the quantity of energy used in that circuit or consumed by reaching the end of a complex component on its out end terminal (e.g. as to positive and negative terminal or power socket pins).
WATTAGE has one more important point !
Wattage is an expression of "the exact electrical consumption condition of ENERGY used"
To obtain "watts" is simple , circuit voltage multiplied by amps (volts x amps = watts).
Because some components only have volts and watts printed on them. "watts divided by volts" (watts/volts = amps (at that specific voltage)).
So if you have two different devices in your house operating from different electrical sources such as 240 volt and 12 volt battery and "their power consumption is the same usage in watts e.g. 100 wats you can "calculate the "amps" for either circuit".
100/12 = 8.3 amps (in a 12v circuit)
100/240 = 0.24 amps (in a 240v circuit) *****xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
100/240 = 0.416 amps (in a 240v circuit)
So "to explain crudely in technicality" if you look at the fuse box in your car, each of those little 1A , 2A , 5A fuse ratings corresponds an output pin ("output pins imaginary point here" - to know actually how voltage regulators operate it is similar to an "inverter output" so understand these relating to "voltage drop in a circuit" OCV (open circuit voltage) and CCA (cold cranking amps)) on a voltage regulator specifically to deliver to one component over one individual isolated circuit with the particular amperage current level at a rate a little less than that fuse rating (however, with large sudden current draw circuits such as flap motors and or headlights, usually a more suitable voltage regulator is placed in an individual circuit to prevent disturbance or damage to other electrical components) !

So back to the point that the "initial system voltage requirement of the aircraft's" alternator and battery circuit and charging balance voltage regulator requires to be understood first from the kit and supplier for the "instruments supplied into the console" and because of "correct operation levels of electrical supply", and the fact that "at some time landing lights and flap motor may be in use".
However, the battery itself is very important to understand!
Batteries have a finite quantity of energy stored!
So, what size in AH (Ampere Hours) of storage should be used?!
Here's a point to remember, if you use landing lights , flap motor, de-icing heater system and strobe lights, (probably landing at night)
The following 24 volt battery would potentially be dangerously low of electricity if you simply went into the hangar and switched off the aircraft!
Itself is not a good idea to leave or sit with the propeller being spun by the engine because family or other people could make contact with your propeller!
In fact, in 24v system with 2 x 500w electric motor for flaps (consumes at points for a moment 10 Kilowatts (surge and feed constant speed power) from their "motor controllers"), 2 x 100 watt landing lights, 1000 watts de-icing (lets say its a water version and a good cuppa), 800 watts of instruments-console, and 400 watt of strobe
that equals (something like i could imagine) a 20 second drain on the battery of 12.4 kilowatts (in 24 volts) = approx. 508 (24v-AMPS) !!!!!
Then when no flaps, 2.4 kilowatts (in 24 volts) = approx. 98 (24v-AMPS) with landing lights and de-icing and strobes console-instruments.
1 kilowatt in 24 volts is 41 amps approximately | 1 kilowatt in 12 volts is 83 amps approximately
A 24 volt 13.6 AH aircraft battery such as found in a Cessna 150 is not actually safely sufficient, However, it is expected during this that the engine is operating so the "alternator is generating" extremely heavily!
Because the flaps are only used for seconds a 24v system to de-ice, strobe and operate the console and landing lights would need an alternator of 98 amps outputting at medium RPM of the engine.
However, usually / often only one landing light is fitted that an alternator and it appears this is no new problem but no real difference with only one landing light if the other systems are present.
Taking a look at an actual aircraft battery such as for the Cessna 150 at 24v in its "battery model data sheet" it can supply 600 AMPS fro 15 seconds "akin to 14 kilowatts" as calculated for the device , BUT it is only a 13.6 ah battery.
It means it can supply 13.6 amps for on hour "as a rating", HOWEVER, it can supply much more for a short period of time!
While this is not good for the battery, for most the "alternator ah rating size" is responsible for perventing such immense draw from the battery but it requires heavy duty "voltage regulators" too as much as a "larger alternator" OF "100amp @24v" !
Here is an online article about aircraft alternators
Here is a Battery Company data sheet for a 13.6 ah Cessna 150 24v battery
Concorder 13.6ah 24v Data Sheet (PDF)

If you want to understand batteries(the power source Voltage of the initial circuit) and current consumption by components(the amperage of the load(component operated on that specific voltage of the circuit)), read the "D.I.Y. Wind-Solar "Off Grid" ARTICLE" and also take a look at the "Battery Calculator page"(switch off the background image in the page menu).
Battery Calculator page

Next is a little complex, while instruments are mounted on a panel in front of the pilot OFTEN they are connected to "data lines" connected to a sensor outside the vehicle(aircraft)!
Never loom "electro-magnetically unshielded" data wires closer than 1 centimeter to any other electrical wire.
(another NOTE never place any physically stretch or taught/tight force temporary or permanent on electrical wires !!!)
e.g. air speed indicator sensors are often out on one of the wings.

Of instruments and mounting them into the instrument panel physically, there should be a rubber padding alike a gasket and if heavy and lengthy unit sitting in the panel should have support struts / cupping with rubber padding to prevent instrument vibration.
But must be secured / fastened into the panel board without ability to shake loose.
Link: Wiring and control panels of Experimental light aircraft


The actual required aircraft instruments and equipment

What should be on a control panel as basic / compulsory in any aircraft "in thereof NAVIGATION occurs to fly it":
[ 0. AN iEFIS "Electronic Flight Instrument System" (single unit often contains and replaces: Artificial Horizon, magnetic compass, GPS viewer, Barometric Altimeter, Vertical speed, ASI) ]
1. "RDAC" engine monitoring system (Cylinder temperature, and Exhaust Temperature(lean and rich mixture sensing from exhaust)) iEFIS "compatible"
(note: the higher you climb in altitude, the richer the fuel mixture becomes, the lower you descend of altitude, the leaner("hotter burning" fuel to air ratio) your fuel mixture becomes in piston engines).
2. Oil temperature gauge
3. Oil pressure gauge
4. carburetor heat control knob
5. fuel enriching control knob
6. ignition on switch
7. starter button
8. ASI Aspeed indicator
9. Altimeter (barometric air pressure - from sea level)
10. vertical speed indicator
11. Artificial Horizon
12. magnetic compass (and heading indicator)
13. GPS system
14. turning meter
15. slip meter
16. Tachometer (with matching red-line to engine parameters)
17. fuel gauge
18. oil warning lamp
19. fuel flow warning lamp
20. Battery ampere / volt test meter
21. Alternator warning light
22. Flaps down warning light
23. - - (hybridised to control panel for non licensed uncontrolled air space user) "World radio reciever" with SW 1,2,3 (short wave) and cloak-wave operation containing Australian air band VHF frequencies receiver 118-137 MHz.
23. x - (not part of control panel either VH or Unlicensed (as suggestion)) UHF(476/477MhHz) CB "80 channel" Duplex/simplex "5 watt" hand held.
* others by choice or "compulsory(VH) reason":
- Air band 118-137 MHz VHF(Very High Frequency) transceiver
- Engine cylinder(s) temperature monitor
- VH(VH refers to Australian national registration prefix) registration transponder (sqwaker)
- various "Air traffic anti collision assistance device" (database radioed) e.g. ADS-B
- FM/AM stereo radio CD deck
- Radar altimeter

*note: some of the above are able to be fulfilled as "EFIS combined"

Link: Radiotelephony communications and procedures in Class G airspace
Link: Airservices Australia frequency management
Link: Australian radiofrequency spectrum (PDF)

Avgas engine type and configuration is what to use to operate the engine of your aircraft. If you use a rare kit that has a diesel then you should only use "winter grade" diesel fuel because of ice or condensation danger. Avgas has some versions that help against ice or condensation!
Another note, is "Australian regulation refueling" for both action (correct ground procedure), equipment (anti-static earth binding), and legislation!
(PDF document)
(PDF document)

(note: Float plane modification


Australian Airspace (the big squeeze)

Other useful links:

“Uncontrolled air space unregistered (requires map and landmark reading skills)” )
Set online map to 0ft – 8000ft to clear out airspace shown above 8500ft
Uncontrolled airspace is class G and all below 8500ft

...For many in Australia, bus train or airliner is considered more than probably safer for long distance travel than either light aircraft or personal road vehicle,...That's what you think! , By interstate train the injuries and fatalities are generally teeth and bones caused by one of 5 criteria of "blunt instrument", "shotgun", "pistol", "machete" or "hands fist feet", Again, Buses generally alike a car are road accident, and finally airliners are "safe" in Australia from fatality for most, However, everything else of airliners is amiss the goals and reasons of both personal and business travel with a high to extreme risk of serious or irreparable disruption to personal or business plans and or security(personal or business)....

The following "news article" has two of the most common reasons for Light aircraft crash in Australia (1) Flight planning management and two (2) fuel.
Home built (piston single) Light aircraft test flight crash , HOWEVER, bad Flight planning management most commonly causes "collision with terrain (in many ways as a broad term0" through bad or insufficiently planned practices of flight path, of one of these being "overhead lines or wire-strike"!
These two ATSB reports typify the 3rd most common method of light plane crash (3) "loss of control" (stall - low air speed - low altitude)
a. Loss of control
ATSB 2016 Austrlian flight safety information media release
Most of the aircraft that crashed in 2017 (much media release coverage) were far over 20 years old!
In this document (following link) can be seen the "main" or common cause of fatal air crashes is "flight management planning" and second most common is "control handling operation", the last significant statistic in bulk killing is "bothering to or how to respond to emergency" !
Any questions why it is sensible to get training and VH use accreditation with PPL "not RPL or simple us of uncontrolled airspace" !


Australian Transport Safety Bureau - accidents and assessments

..."Ground-based animal strikes were relatively rare. The most common ground animals struck by aircraft were hares and rabbits, kangaroos, wallabies, dogs and foxes. Damaging animal strikes mostly involved kangaroos, wallabies and livestock."...
Bird and ground level "wildlife and animal strikes" stats info (flightsafety - article abridged)
Bird and ground level "wildlife and animal strikes" stats info (PDF report ATSB)

..."but if i go to hell then i hope i burn well"... (Source: Australian Transport Safety Bureau)

Link (article below): Anti icing equipment and meteorology crash example information for Australia (You can learn an immense quantity about flying from "this articles' links to reports on the crash")

Note: "Nowhere suitable inside Barrington Tops forest NSW" is any space made in a few places for a light aircraft to land although it is a mildly deadly area because of its terrain and many high peaks coupled with partial alpine weather akin to the north above Australia tropical "Storm Factory" (re the storm factory: why you calculate the price of hangar construction or hire to buying a kit aircraft rather than covers and tie-down!), although it is one of the most rugged and difficult terrain in Australia for anyone to search if such an event occurs!

A quick note about hangars, always double wall them or put in advanced growth canopy spreading trees planted around the three enclosed walls, and, double layer the roof with an air gap between the sealed roof and the heat shading roof cover to prevent heat damage more of point of heat exposure over prolonged periods such as days to months!

The very problem shows why you should use "STOL with heavy terrain wheels and include anti-ice systems in any aircraft package" you buy whether Kit DIY or factory built!
Its not to look pretty, its to handle how much help the Australian government refuses to be to developing proper transit systems (that being light aircraft because of distance and environment) as standard for completely ordinary citizens, the government only chooses to be a parasite bloodsucker at any level and has known that road vehicles are monstrous problem to use over vast distance but only sees the regular "roll out of tax" in it ignoring the fact that with good roads it only swapped fatality for crippling injury, note too that Barrington tops National Park was a military training area during the Vietnam war and in principal is anything except a military area by proxy all the bases within a 100km any side of it! The accident investigation reports and supplement information will tell you a large quantity about IFR flight and fitness required by machinery for Australian environment conditions.

Q: Why read the above article PDF Article "Fatigue and distance travel in Australia" !?
A: Recognize that "time wasting of life" and "impossible achievement of a travel solution about fatigue and speed and time (particularly where it has to be flexible)" is all road vehicles bring! Until people get a (PPL) Private Pilot license and use VH registered light aircraft to remove long distance road travel, there will always be crashes of massive magnitude!
This head on crash beats getting "Falkholted (artists like style)" or "Pacific Highwayed" (Although this was "the Princes highway" it is the southern version of terrain and road to "the Pacific highway (Northern)") (called "Bussed" - re the massive bus/coach crashes in history on it)" Wed Jan 17, 2018 ("Although recent" it is "one of the worst multi vehicle head on car crashes in Australian history to date (at least since national highways were made multi-"ROAD" by 1995 - 2000 and particularly because they were only ordinary small road vehicles)" and as YouTube can show "means QUITE SOMETHING to achieve that level of destruction of life by cars only") !
Link: "Picture of Falkholt boxing day accident location scene" shows the debris field (and liquid spillage) only little more than 50 yards long and for most is only impact inertia scatter that like many road accidents" has following cars run over it. Too the head on impact stopped both vehicles "ALMOST INSTANTLY" (as severe as that ever is except for the fact the vehicles struck "offset to center" but head on, center is all it was not) as they remain only a yard or so from each other, they show they were "offset at impact"(not "absolute center") by their rest position and revolved each other "at point of impact" "possible half a rotation (180o) only to facing opposite direction or a full 360o" depending which vehicle is which in the picture). An immense impact !!! , they only left "the collision impact point" by three yards and five yards from full speed collision in both directions to instant halt as shown by the short sparse debris field in the picture !
No idea how "anything" could survive that impact in either vehicle for a tiny moment (and probably did not), although forensics on Lockerbie disaster found time of death for two passengers of the 747 may have been sufficient to save them if they had been found shortly after alighting, but "to that effect" in the boxing day crash (200kmh to 240kmh collective impact speed to instant halt within one to two yards or less ) no such atmospheric assistance was a "chance" to cushion impact.
Anyhow, nothing unusual, just more common other ways in Australia (except between 1960 and 1995 on roads in Australia).
NOTE: Some of the problems of weather (e.g. Heatwave ! there have been 10 heatwaves in Australian history killed more than 100 people!) and other problems found in the following disaster link is a reason to have a PPL and VH registered light aircraft!
What occurred upon the Falkholt family (massive fatality in moments) is what that is as risk to use a road vehicle in Australia for many many more reasons also than simply the bad driver that hit them!
RES IPSA DES, it is the A typical result of the long distance journey on Australian roads.

e.g. Australian head on crashes Youtube
YouTube: head on crash Australia
YouTube: head on crash Australia

Other head on crashes (Australia) !
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia
YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia     YouTube: Road vehicle crash Australia

However it occurs, it's like the old AC/DC song goes, ..." Hells Bells ! " (which sound more like crunch!)



(speaking of "crunch" (or single dull "thud", "donk" or "whack") as a more realistic sound, don't listen to all of those Hollywood movies with air crashes if you are a bush-walker)

VH-MDX air crash 1981

The answer to this is if you buy a light aircraft, be sure its' kit has or the factory machine incorporates anti ice equipment fitted to your aircraft, (that also means changing to a larger battery and generator as to putting more lights on your aircraft means the same).

URL Picture of VH MDX
Picture of VH MDX (fair use de-enhanced colour)
It is actually a high powered six seat aircraft, and was being flown by IFR rules by that point it disappeared.
(PDF) What IFR roughly involves learning (US training list)
- For those that make a day out of IFR news and blog articles -    - For the rest of us, what the hell does that mean?! (CASA) -
...If you can't go to hell for that, then what the hell do you go to hell for...

News Article on VH-MDX
Report on VH-MDX
Operation Wittenoom search (PDF)
VH-MDX Communications (PDF)
VH-MDX Initial-Overview V2 (PDF)

140 knots 72.0222222m/s 259.28 kmh
170 knots 87.4555556m/s 314.84 kmh

199 seconds from the last radar point measured to final communication transmission
Altitude decent around 60kmh - 1000ft/minute (mean)
(maximum traversion from final radar point @140 Knots): 14.328 km * given speed by official investigation *(note: possible 110 Knots "under 8500 feet")
(maximum traversion from final radar point @170 Knots): 17.4036555644 km
100 seconds down to 3000ft is more likely the best it ever managed (note: -not 120 seconds-, when things fall with gravity it is an acceleration):
@140 Knots: 7.2 km
@170 Knots: 8.7 km

Meters - feet
1000 - 3280 * "becoming almost impossible" to miss terrain !
1100 - 3608
1200 - 3937
1300 - 4265
1400 - 4593*
1500 - 4921*

*1400 (Radar fade point: at 2 O'clock extent to 3O'clock at "1.5 - 2km" is a peak classifies as this and another 3km at 2 O'clock)
*1500 (Radar fade point: In a semi circle arc from 8 O'clock around to 2 0' clock classifies as 4824ft)
*1400 - 1500 (Radar fade point: Most of what is behind and to (port) left classifies as 4824ft also)
Topographic of Barrington Tops National park 5000ft radar fade point (320oM (330oT) point associated Williamstown Radar reciever - 45 Nm)

Wind was south-west to westerly and around 30 knots (30-50) more likely 30 at or below 5000ft, drift to easterly - north east is around 500m to 1Km a minute mean.

However, listening to the ATC recording the pilot appears to have taken alarm at the altitude, which leads me to believe he possibly had an "elevator" control failure at that time that he was completely unaware of (but maybe found that before the whole incident ceased and finalised) and that he "attempted the turn" after agreement with ATC at the moment thereabout when he said "6000" as his altitude.
When turning a conventional light aircraft, lowering to suitable wing loading speed first, then it requires increased engine power(or propeller pitch with constant speed gas turbine), but it is because of the requirement to maintain altitude in a normal turn with excessive drag for the aircraft angle during that aerodynamic problem of flight.
With ice forming, it can jam control surfaces and coupled with wing ice destroying the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft lift surfaces, it then has "almost no flight aerodynamic characteristics" and commits plummeting more than flight, trouble is however, "turn the aircraft" (called "banking") with all that together and there is "NO aerodynamic flight occurring" whatsoever, and "no elevator control" to vector the engine power against "turn slide altitude loss" a standard feature of aerodynamic operation during a turn (akin to a stall, or coffin corner) ! If anything, the wind speed and direction and its effect on the aircraft heading would then decide the final parameters of its resting pint.

One other point to note in the recording is quite subtle! Anyone whom has sat with a truck driver on long haul trips often will find that to "keep awake" (AKA keep "aware") is the "attitude" in the voice of the trucky to attempt to hold conversation to stay awake and aware!
It is not dissimilar to the attitude of the pilot in the ATC recording although the journey is nowhere near as long (pardon the pun) as long haul truck driving. Moreover, there is some evidence of losing potentially "mild physical" (radio button) and "mild coherence" but is extremely blanketed over by the unfolding gravity with which it appears he may have no proper explanation for and could not give to the ATC.
Again too he did say that some of the actual "electric driven" equipment "engine driven" (vacuum) equipment was not operating *[ valves and controllers use solenoids! see link].
(NOTE: Oddly electrical or engine driven).
If so then the (APU) air pressurization system may be on the same circuit and shutdown also!? , "hypoxemia" for various reasons may have been setting in, although the last of the recording sounds alike rushing air in the background such to having a door ajar mid flight.
So to summarize, ...up and down like a yo yo.. OR (and quite subtly) ...compass swinging like blazes... could simply be the inability for the "rear elevator control surfaces" to be used to vector the aircraft causing rudder buffeting by the wind and direction (note: can "saw"(reverse) almost as violently and by speed opposing direction momentarily, and by speed in a storm at angles (wind shear)). He may not have known this with any surety until the last minutes or had any true idea it was "the problem" when he contacted the ATC. It may have been the "compass" was responding but the aircraft was not, but being blown around anywhere, he may have only had "odd" steering from rudder and ailerons not realising the elevators were not operating.

VH-MDX-Meteorological-Conditions-V2 (PDF)

Note: with the topographic map, to read the map you need to "zoom the browser window", after, setting the map to the piece wanted in the window!
Topographic of Barrington Tops National park 5000ft radar fade point (320oM (330oT) point associated Williamstown Radar reciever - 45 Nm)

Now for something useless, all a complete waste of time! (look at Figure 16-3)

So what of flying in the Burmuda triangles of forests ... "where to go" .... "anyone give a sh"....
One thing not mentioned in this article is "emergency locator beacons". As that is the below video of Vietnam Hueys shows that Vietnam had little difference to Australia "until" reaching geographical areas of rice paddy, everything else including farmland prairie and forest is geographically Australia, including piles of rock dust and grass.
Locating was done with satellite and UTM mapping no far different to GPS. Soviets had satellite GPS systems in the early 1970s also.


Of helicopters, not mentioned much of kits here, i have always felt the UH-1 utility design and particularly its pendulous system for weight and angle was one of the best ever made (in the utility carrier context - excuse the megalomania), but it also has another feature that civilian helicopters don't along with it, that being Horsepower! It is just a sad fact that many helicopter accidents do not run along the lines of light aircraft but rather because of horsepower and maneuverability by larger stronger bat(blade) and pendulum system, and such design mechanisms in civilian helicopter terms are often kept less efficient, in so far as the problem with light aircraft before the modern 4 seat STOLs since 2013 comparitively, the civilian helicopters are less powerful (blade and pendulum strength too) and less maneuverable (weak), and often weather handling takes them !