For pure off grid with downsizing appliances a wee piece it is cheaper with a hybrid and can essentially be guaranteed 12 to 15 years life.
Please Do Not Attempt to contact me about anything in this site - "This is simply free information !" (2 and 1/2 years research)
Australian Light aircraft domestic private personal usage and logistics of home built kits
Actual Fact: Private aviation is not feasible for the majority of would be pilots in Australia unless the aircraft used is a STOL.
When you think about it passing in opposite directions on a two way road is a "collective reaction time speed of a race driver" 120km + 120km = 240Km
you are actually travelling at 240Km's within inches of massive collision moment after moment after hour after hour ! Whether you spot another car first or not does nothing, however, in a light aircraft that need not be so close or dangerous ! ?!?!?!?!?!? It's illegal to drive at 200Km also !!!!
It's one thing that there is no-where to take-off in Australia, so hence a STOL bushplane, Bu' , You thought that was bad!
If you had an engine failure in a 4 seat ordinary light aircraft, there effectively is nowhere to land unless there is a deliberate runway, AND it would tend to plummet not glide !
A 4 seat STOL does have a small quantity of glide at full load capacity, AND can land on a short section of non runway ground with correct wheel / suspension type (heavy terrain) fitted !
Moreover the difference between an ordinary light aircraft and a STOL on non runway ground is landing (a STOL) or some form of crashing (an ordinary light aircraft) after engine failure !
Hence the 360 HP six seat mentioned below with fuel economy calculations and the other four seat STOLs !
Finally, don't bother with second hand aircraft, the Essondon Vic. twin Beechcraft "commercial company plane" that crashed into the shopping centre was over 20 years old, Australia is overloaded with old bits and pieces of flying aircraft and enough is enough, these newer tested but experimental designs are modern and built around learned advancements in many, aircraft beyond 5 years old are not a good investment in safety other than a good record on the individual craft !
Buying or building new will protect life not take it !
From the registry records of current VH aircraft in Australia , 70% of the list probably should be bulldozed into a trench hole no matter how well kept the past 50 to 60 years (and with one or two in it possibly 70 to 80 years) !!! Some of the funniest deadly crashes ARE immensely well kept antiques, BUT "amusing because" that won't be news to hear what happened (just waiting for that) whether a de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver in the Hawkesbury River or a bizarre twin engine WW2 "era" vintage remote farm transport runabout suddenly didn't control properly and disintegrated ! It's not news ! It's simply "easily possible" what that will be after 20 years passes !
Reused aircraft means finding a pilot experienced with that design. Exhumation for purposes other than forensic examination is illegal !
If you are under 30 years of age:
this, Standard PPL "VFR flying rules" (PDF), this RPL 1st half (.zip with .doc), and this, PPL 2nd half (.zip with .doc) are all you require to know for basic purpose, and, to read all this page too (light aircraft). Some of the other information aside is more choice to know (but probably an extremely good choice).
If you are 30 years of age or older, consume / download everything, videos, documents, page links e.t.c. (with a fast internet connection) the two article site pages, their links, the "PDF Article (fatigue and distance travel)" and keep it all in a folder !
(while personal loans may be affordable repayment completed in 4 years at Maximum lent, NOTE (About "market cheap end" kit build systems): No home built kit light aircraft (almost all offered on the world market) is generally able to be finished under 60K AUD , mainly because an engine is 25-30K AUD "median" on top of the kit price along with 10K more for upholstery trimming and instruments extra , and sometimes paints whether internal protection metal primer and cover or external aircraft paint)
It may require up to three months to read all the information ( download links and videos into a folder for later reading / viewing at will ),
You will need to be able to view PDF documents and .doc : required free DOC viewer editor download
and also may need an archive unzip tool depending encodings used by some sites Winrar archiver (free version) download required free PDF reader download
You will also require to download and study videos of particular resolution and information: required free video "downloader" download
And if you do not have a good video player, this is one of the best free players (for most platforms and many codecs) called "VLC" required free video player download
the links are all relevantly associate the information on, reasons, logistics, PPL,
cost, safety, kit type and acquirement, construction and other possibilities.
Google Chrome is a good browser for both link saving and web page saving.
Final note: Use an internet cafe to download any of this unless you have reliable high speed internet!
(About the following article) Why die of Fatigue in a driverless car?! (there are usually 10 or so compulsory personal and business journeys per year each over 300 Km distance one way, anyone has to commit over Australia's dispersed geography)
Between Sydney and Melbourne is 877Km , and around "8 hours and 43 minutes" by car (google map measurement) with revival stop at 100 - 120 Kmh.
Journey distance by aircraft roughly for purpose here, 740 Km between Sydney and Melbourne.
A general (ground roll take off - 120 meters or less) "STOL light aircraft" 90 knots 166 Kmh cruise speed, "4 hours and 24 minutes"
Standard light aircraft (long ground roll take off - 250 meters or more) cruise at 110 Knots 203 Kmh "3 hours and 36 minutes"
Mildly faster standard Light aircraft 120Knots 222 kmh (long ground roll take off - 250 meters or more) 3 hours and 18 minutes
One particular kit light aircraft has a takeoff roll (engine HP dependent) of 600ft to 800ft , cruise speed of 124 knots 230 Kmh, six seat alike a station wagon, near a STOL but not, "3 hours and 12 minutes"
Abberative fuel cost: (it is sensible to have "6 hours minimum endurance" in fuel tank size because of cost)
Buying "drums / barrels" or keeping a "bulk above ground tank" worth its size to the supplier to truck in can heavily reduce the price, but with a tank you need to decide the additives and or grade to store e.g. anti-water grade, winter grade e.t.c. to not mix it.
53.75 litres p/hour = 14.2 Gallons p/hour ("6 seat-cargo" 360 HP piston - @"3 hours and 12 minutes")* "not dissimilar" to 180HP O-360 Lycoming @"4 hours and 24 minutes - SYD - MEL one way"
$3 a litre
total = $3 x (3.5h x 54) = $567
total = $3 x (3h x 54) = $486
$2.50 a litre
total = $2.50 x (3h x 54) = $405
$2.00 a litre
total = $2.00 x (3h x 54) = $324
*[ "4 seat" Standard STOL bush plane: 180HP O-360 Lycoming @"4 hours and 24 minutes" $370 fuel - SYD - MEL one way]
Not cheaper than road vehicle, but what price your life when it's only 10 (to 30) times a year and some of those journey types(long distance) (if not all) always are the very substance of being in massive danger in a road vehicle !
@ 120HP it starts to be much more reasonable fuel cost and comparative to a car/station-wagon, but in a 4 seat STOL for fuel but it has "no actual engine power to add to (cooperate with) STOL design" although takeoff distance, and takeoff climb will only be "each extended" 1.5x - 2.0x the STOL model standard power distances.
The lesson, if you need some reasonable fuel economy in a four seat STOL then 130HP consumption is maximum to fit the cowl and finishing kit, but it is technically "around / thereabout" a minimum of around 160HP to takeoff a 4 seat STOL aircraft. (below 180 HP not a good idea).
HOWEVER, IS THAT (fuel economy to engine size) REALLY A PROBLEM, when you use it only when required for long distance journeys!
Is it really a problem (fuel economy to engine size) if you use a 210 HP 30 times a year for distance journeys a year VS the normal ground travel vehicle around 700 - 800 journeys per year!
Is it really a problem (fuel economy to engine size) because the average 2 car family spends almost 20K a year to drive !
A pilot with VH registered and PPL must always complete a number of hours in controlled airspace and flight by flight plan and in terms of cost, MORE what would be difficult in this "light aircraft user scheme" would be to do the required number of reported hours per year usage to endorse the accreditation's legal requirements of holding the PPL, SO IT WILL NOT COST MUCH ANYHOW!
Finally, the aircraft will last at least 10 - 15 years with low hour rate on it by this "standard purpose" user scheme, so comparatively it is not like a car that is changed every four years on average.
With this last one (Canadian with 360hp engine), It notably has the point that if acquired factory built and imported and a hangar built for it on a private property with a set of new spare tyres, standard (Aus) instrument panel for "VH registration" (if you have PPL) and import costs e.t.c. that it may be 200K AUD on the mark. Also, a note about that point, is with factory built you avoid "51% rule" of kits, makes lower insurance overhead, and at 200K that is the maximum a "helpful stable lad" average wage earner will be allowed risked by a bank "because "it" != real estate" ( real estate == assured repossession value on default - bank cannot lose ) (Link: ..."land...land...land...see snatch"...) !
There are references to the three main types of airspace, uncontrolled (class "G" where most light aircraft are used) , controlled , and restricted. This last one (restricted) is generally military and secure government no different to the mine field surrounding some government military installations, if you breach that and step on a live mine, "what happens". Enough said, but remember "where" to use your aircraft and learn to fit and use "flight GPS" and "barometric altimeter" if you fly by any version of license so you can stay away from both controlled and restricted air space !
This article endeavors to explain that there is a real reason to banter and protest "VH" light aircraft ownership should be acceptable and likely as a normal lower middle class activity and operation in Australia where possible and leaves no good reason for the allocation of near (if not all) total loan capacity to simply a house against prospective life earnings and because of the severity of Australia's environment that there is no good reason for personal/private expensive brand or model cars because of their inherent failure and impossibility of safety whether driven or driver-less at traversing long distances through the Australian environment because of time wasting, suffering and fatigue and the result whether expensive or cheap road vehicle.
Moreover, That the pre allocation of life's earning for many considered stable and positive by a bank manager (at least after 25yrs age and in a stable marriage and work environment) was not properly examined for how to allocate the major requirements as the granted loan capacity can be dipped because of absolutely no understanding of (actually, could not care less and only wish to drain it their way - note, the only company found would calculate 200K at 7 years was a personal finance company (Latitude) and there is "no such thing as an unsecured personal loan truthfully", generally you will be around 30 to 35 years old and "able to mortgage"(not have any outstanding debts) to obtain such a loan from a specialist finance company, or "if it were a bank at 200K", able to earn the money back stable over two to three years with no outstanding debt and be able to mortgage also as requirement. Banks do not do personal loan beyond 50K for 5 years) the existence, use and cost of (PPL) Private Pilot License Training, "new"(probably home built kit) 4 seat light aircraft cost, hanger cost, *suitable real estate and location(size and obstacle congestion for runway e.g. 200m clear path(minimum for STOL or basically 0.4 (2/5ths) more "clear to climb out ahead after wheels leave the ground" *note Australian Eucalyptus often reach 40 - 50 meters height , much more than 50 ft more like 150ft )) cost and maintenance and operation cost.
*Of “suitable real estate”, Did you know , if you buy rural land that has been granted a building permit for a dwelling in a remote area that has electricity supply lines nearby, the allowance to use off-grid isnot granteduntil the cost of all the work and charges of connecting the network supply exceed something like 45K dollars (thereabout)! By law it must be network connected and the building permit may not be granted by placement potentially(if you do not put it as close as possible to the supply line then you must spend e.g. 100K or 245K dollars e.t.c. "whatever it costs" to run the supply wires and clear the terrain to put them through - e.g. 100 meters unobstructed costs vaguely around 30K dollars)!NOTE: That of other AKA “hidden costs” as example, if you were to buy and import e.g. a 4 seat CH801 STOL kit , it requires “international transport handling brokers” (if the aircraft manufacturer company does not “export trade deal CIF” (warning never use FOB unless you pay a foreign transport manager broker too – nb: …costs too much!) to Australian port), Your method of pick-up from ACBPS customs area by a dock trucking transport company if you cannot wait around with a truck for the call from ACBPS(NOTE: must be done immediate of call) (suitable truck and suitable lifting equipment ) all day for a week yourself, and finally there is either your DIY ACBPS customs “online import declaration over internet VPN with a personal digital certificate issued with ID sighted by Australia Posts’ security desk” as “self customs broker” with payment of tariff (around 5%)+ GST(around 11%) ( You can read “all you need to know to self import as your own customs broker” in the DIY Wind Solar Hybrid import article at http://windsolarhybridaustralia.x10.mx/mainindex.html#monpaypers (menu above this page) ).
Another vastly un-thought of point about personal loan cap is the fact that with some commodities such as a house (real estate) the extent to which banks grant home loan borrowing is unethical because of repayment factors they do not hold to account with the only method of sensible large unit money handling by thereabout average wage earner persons have because they cannot store vast sums of money safely by savings in a bank as "ready to draw" for security reasons.
Moreover, using more than 2/3rds of the loan cap may be with some banks the loan cap for a thereabout average wage earner if it is not real estate they wish to buy because it will not hold 100% value on default or called default of a loan! When a house or apartment is defaulted the bank repossesses and resells losing nothing and holding onto the payed repayments to that point! For the average stable earning "single" wage earner a home loan is generally 500k to 600k cap but sensibility prescribes because of other requirements and foresight that only 1/2 such a cap as maximum for real estate would ever be sensible for the wage earner to survive gradually gaining the proper tools to live e.g. perhaps a light aircraft , or, simply a year away for self paid retraining to be more employable which may need to occur repeatedly through working life to prevent default on any loans. What is built and financed by banks as investment in any level of locality where wage earners buy in terms of real estate is often calculated for "him and her loan cap together to the pairs max" as the final sale price of the newly constructed real estate and is as bad as bleeding dry because for most people to AKA finance anything over 5000 dollars is too risky to keep as ready to draw and at risk as it is to lesser criminals that go more cheaply !
It also endeavors to explain the problems of geography, the environment and meteorology of Australia is for most worse than Canada and should be understood vastly Australia's light aircraft limitations though are much the same risk as Canada's, how soever it is perceived makes "the requirement for use of light aircraft the correct responsibly ethical action to be promoted to anyone" whom can achieve "VH" and PPL accreditation at the minimum level of accredited use achievement!
Since around 2013 the few Australian light aircraft manufacturers have produced kit and ready made aircraft somewhere around Australian average wage earner level of cost affordability (in the loan capacity context).
Of cost, there are other ways inside persanal loan cap. but real comprehension of materials chemical handling and use requires to be understood to get a quite unusually novel (but aerodynamically quite conventional) light aircraft by design. The trouble is with "materials ONLY and design-plans" , never miss!
Here is what i mean...USA kit catalog (PDF document [ !WARNING ] SIZE: "58 Megabyte") note: Bearhawk 4 seat is considered part of this type of system of kit planes constructed by plans.
After over half a century, the harshest most extreme environment on the planet with as unrivaled "regular recurring" travel distances has not produced a world class light aircraft aviation industry or such a light aircraft suitable to compete the standard Australian family road vehicle, neither does its inhabitants understand the significance of having the tools to survive and operate within it in a first world or second world point of bothering to live in it as an ordinary citizen.
Probably its most perverse vulgarity of display in this genre are the lack of to non existence of take-off landing strips suitable for as much as twin engine light aircraft simply not supplied adjacent to each town nationally!
As any aboriginal has known for thousands of years, light aircraft are an essential tool to move around Australia without suffering and being killed in large numbers with road vehicles.
BUT IT'S SAFER THAN LIGHT AIRCRAFT ALL THE WAY ISN'T IT .................
(remembering this is about standard usual long distance journeys around 5 to 10 times a year with odd unexpected but required long distance journeys at short notice, and not getting bogged down by weather, being able to pre-empt weather conditions and leave before catastrophe or problems, delays).
Kit home build Helicopter ....Gotta hand it to BADMAN for this one...
Oddly, the USA in 2011 had 139,010 GA (AKA "private") "piston" single light aircraft, but Australia may have only 40,000 in entirety of "aircraft" of "any type" and also usage/stipulation type purposes (business, private, heli, fixed or other), Australia should actually match the USA number (1/4 of a million total for GA) because of Australia's vast and harsh environment unlike the USA that is at least half European or Mediterranean by geographical and meteorological comparison.
Australia however, is extremely interesting for the lack of aircraft with its dispersed population areas and dispersed families across the continental land mass, of which is the harshest in the world , rivaling the storm factory north of its continental mass, but more than Mediterranean climate, a unique immense climate that has always claimed lives in any form of extreme weather, whether heat wave, winds and cyclones, freezing and flood and bush-fire (wildfire).
Oddly from this, one of the "most useful" stories of light aircraft incident with weather and terrain involves an oddly positioned section of land mass called Barrington Tops National Park in Eastern Central New South Wales.
Barrington Tops weather environment was used to train soldiers in its Northern half because it stretches from high altitude Alpine that in winter is sub zero at night and snows, all the way to semi desert (in the park) with rugged steep near vertical granite covered and formed hill and mountain terrain incorporating large tracts of dense jungle bush including rain forest and in temperatures of the maximum humanly survivable (as not survivable) on the planet in mid summer!
Barrington tops is nestled in among two major military bases spanning 80Km x 100Km approximately, so when the charter light aircraft VH-MDX was lost in the middle of it (crashed) on August 9th 1981, it is not clear whether it was a military incident (only 9 years after the Vietnam war) of "restricted airspace" for which the government gives no explanation or a civil aviation disaster because of peculiar idiosyncratic weather actions (meteorological) and conditions (e.g. Lee waves and icing) or the failure of parts of the aircraft as the pilot had radioed before disappearing from radar never to be found!
The ATSB reports show a wealth of information on how harsh and immense the Barrington Tops environment is and was that evening VH-MDX disappeared but the subtlety is it is as harsh in many localized geographical areas all over Australia at some time in some season, and any other regions that do not have all of the weather or environment conditions Barrington Tops has, but always have much of the conditions in some way or another at some time of year.
That problem belongs to around no other place on earth except perhaps African countries that are not first world and have not the education or money to build, develop or fly aircraft, so are not a comparison for understanding "the trend" showing of light aircraft use. Neither is the USA a comparison because of this feature of weather and environment, but again too does not have an incentive alike Australia relating its wildlife by point of deadliness (It appears Africa has the only "comparative level" environment, mainly wildlife, However if you mixed Canada, Soth Effericka and the equatorial storm factory in one, that gives the scope of it (something to per-empt "result of" and move out of the way of fast, safe, effective!)).
Australias' education levels are considered throughout time the equal of that of the USA and proves that by 4 Australian to 1 USA Nobel science prize recipients but cannot make a reliable , robust cheap enough world class aircraft to carry 4 to 6 people as a piston single with an industry to match from it developed in this extreme environment (that incidentally to this day, requires STOL and large wide landing wheels for light aircraft to be of use)!
Truthfully in 2018, Australia should be an odd and strange country by having as many if not more "piston single" light aircraft privately owned and flown in Australia as USA has number for number all GA! That's right ! 1/4 of a million aircraft "private GA" piston single aircraft and probably only around 10,000 commercial aircraft (maybe less) and maybe 50,000 private other types such as twin and single turbo prop. Again maybe as many as 1/2 a million to 1 million PPL and other "private" single engine or flight accreditation.
A quick look at "Canada in 1986" (since i cannot find the proper documents) shows 26,000 GA aircraft and around 4000 commercial !
The view of Canada 1986 is alike an identical view of Australia 2018 (30 years the difference), again, Australia should have many more private GA than Canada.period.!!!
This view of Australian environment (not merely this 2009 in the links) however, is much more real than Canada
Bush Fire - Roadside Vehicles (1)Bush Fire - Roadside Vehicles (2)Bush Fire - Roadside Vehicles (3) BUT IT'S SAFER THAN LIGHT AIRCRAFT ALL THE WAY ISN'T IT .................
It would have done well to understand its Geography and requirements for living in this country as much anyone that needs to traverse it.
Kit home build Helicopter
However, governments do not think in terms of assisting people only how much of a resource they can draw from somewhere to fill their economic requirements for their face values of success, their word is propagation not nurture until between the authorities and people the word to use by natural attrition becomes "help"(subtle).
Again too, some creatures evolved in Australia and have been handling its environment for a million years or more
Natural environment of Australia
One of the biggest "jokes" Australia is to its national highway upgrades is the fact the immense money spent on "allocating" tracts of land to truck-Highway travel "fuel station kiosk and rest stop complexes" along major multi lane interstate highways has "no understanding of the significance" (theoretical) of allocating more land only 100 meters away for a solid twin length "one way" landing strip and light aircraft parking beside those types of stops with some rule of use development e.g. weather, parking and non controlled entry-leaving protocol.
Many features to help such areas now exist such as solar and wind off grid to power colored lights and runway lights for good weather NVFR that would be the maximum to use it and generally the maximum for most light aircraft pilots anyhow.
But as you can comprehend, Australia and its politicians understands nothing of the significance and purpose of light aircraft development and "purpose of use to supersede road vehicle", but particularly in the context of road vehicles for travel, the "impossible to be safe" and the context of "responsibility to promote and assist transition and continual use to a safer more useful efficient transit method" of which airliner is not a point finally and in many cases is simply a bloodsucker for many reasons against personal private life and business commitment.
Airlines are fraught with non voluntary cancellation, too small light aircraft airliners doing lesser routes as much require to be viable at finding customers and cost of delivering people, something that subsidy cannot cover for them viably from a government perspective. Weather being airliner's major concern for cancellation , a "personal owned private light aircraft" can often be utilized long before the weather reaches origin, any part of the track and destination by good forward planned and current meteorology and standard flight planning management and in some cases can have plan B at a field short of the destination and other arrangements for continuation over a short distance. With airlines there is no guarantee or flexibility of management or direct time efficient approach, particularly with airlines cancelling flights due to weather.
By good management planning personal light aircraft has massive advantage over airliners that often require the customer to make an "L" shaped journey over the map with their airliners destination exactly alike some road vehicles getting around large land masses 50km x 50Km or more to reach particular towns behind them!
WARNING! For safety reasons(technical and economic) Read the articles (D.I.Y. Wind-Solar "Off Grid" article, the other 12 volt systems article, and the Wet Cell battery article) ! ! !
Off Grid powers' key-stone is storage of enough electricity using deep cycle batteries!
Off grid power is achieved using deep cycle batteries(accumulators) with "float-charge level voltage set in the controller" NOT deep cycling charge system!
The difference, accumulators are Ampere Hour(AH) capacity "relating" temperature dependent:
Deep cycling is done by charge current lifting the capacity to approximately 15 volts per 12v battery and 100% capacity. To achieve 100% capacity for "Deep Cycling" the temperature of the accumulator must be suitably high enough during charging at least to allow 100% filling capacity. When filled, the battery is discharged to a Depth of Discharge(DOD) level e.g. 30% DOD or 70% DOD.
The action of discharging down to a particular percentage of DOD is known as "cycling" and usually occurs constantly "deep down to 70% DOD" under heavy current draw within minutes to hours of starting use, and, one action of it is called "a single cycle". Deep cycle accumulators have a finite reasonably guaranteed number of these "cycles" known for the levels of various percentage DOD'S e.g. only - 1400 cycles to 30% DOD.
Float charging system, 12 to 15 years use for off grid systems, a deep cycle battery is not violently discharged, it relies on most of the electricity produced from the generators(solar and wind) to be ducted into the the DC to 240vac inverter for use directly as the strategy. The battery bank size is for protection against required emergency discharge or minor over-runs of use to prevent battery ware-damage from causing serious decrease in their service life(life-cycle), it also is used to store burst energy to start appliances called "surge power".
The charge controller is "not set for deep cycling to throughput 15v per 12v battery" it is set much lower at 13.7 volts which is analogous to the charge controller ceasing input at maximum of 75% - 80% battery bank charged capacity. Too again, a lower temperature is used (usually 20oC) to incubate the batteries to lower chemical reaction that causes ware inside the batteries.
Often deep cycle batteries have some of this information for float charge and Deep Cycling written on the side of them each.
1. Never discharge a deep cycle battery below half its' capacity(most models can be) and never completely(most models are not allowed that to occur).
2(a). Other sites calculate storage usage 1:1 of AH(ampere hours - watt hours) to usage requirement. This is never done because a deep cycle battery or any battery has a special charger system and chemistry requiring it to theoretically remain above 70 percent full (for float charge action) bu', to have 15 years of service... special battery storage bank usage management requires the battery bank to remain above 85 percent full and the correct version battery chemistry in the batteries(accumulators) to last 20 years capable in float cycle model specification. This means "ampere hours used" to "ampere hours storage" is more than 10 times the daily consumption calculation (should be 1:11, their miscalculation for this usage, they say something like 1:1.2) than other sites give for using batteries.
2(b). Remember, most other off grid online battery calculators are wrong (because the accumulator calculations are not for 12 - 15 years use float life-cycle)!
Other online battery calculators for off grid use are usually "applied as deep cycling action" to 70% DOD of storage bank.
That is because they think a few 4 wheel drivers or campers want to take some electricity to operate a mobile home like environment where they will empty the batteries to 30% full(known as 70% DOD - Depth of Discharge).
Normal houses AND flats/units seasonal use is 25Kw-hours to 35Kwh a day because of heating cooling , hot water and cooking (just mentioning the big ones).
In effect at "12v AH" standard(Ohms' Law of watts to volts to amps) 5000ah to 6000ah (12 volt standard value) of storage is required ("preferred" or above 8Kw rated generator system, an extremely expensive lazy or mismanaged 12v value of 6400ah MINIMUM is required to safely take generator charge(input) levels (large houses and workshop - small mansions ... etc))!
3. Remember, Off Grid powers' key-stone is storage of enough electricity using deep cycle batteries, deep cycle accumulators were originally designed for industrial use, because they require, high current charge and discharge rates, and heavy current high voltage through-put by adding together in series for the custom power system. There are two main voltages of deep cycle batteries "2v"(two volt) single cell and "12v"(twelve volt) six cell types. The life-cycle number of discharges is determined by the chemistry type and construction materials substance and quality, therefore for cost only basic lead acid(pardon the pun) AGM-lead acid and GEL-lead acid are calculated for here but there are many chemistry e.g. calcium or silicon, so learning "battery model data sheets" (note: and dangerous goods MSDS) and basic battery operation parameters is a sensible idea if you wish to use off-beat types of deep cycle (that are also not "usually" viable because of cost). Note: some of the largest 2v deep cycle batteries can weigh up to around 200Kg a single piece! (In the actual industrial world there are much larger weirder high throughput accumulators sometimes known as SAB! (Shit A Brick!) - These type of container or skip bin battery bank would sit on construction sites with bare rods from the terminals overhead in the early 1970's as backup or temporary power but no different to the result of being in contact with as the protected housed batteries seen in the pictures in the link. They would "incinerate" a person on contact not electrocute them! It's no wonder i cannot find any pics of the 70's versions on work sites, but here are some moderns. Sumitomo Electric redox flow batteriesBatteries for Large-Scale Stationary Electrical Energy Storage).
3.(b) Remember, in DIY to know enough at what you wish to do rather than simply "attempt" because a single 12v car battery can kill by electrocution or similar to the before mentioned industrial battery!
4. New Technology. It may or may not be here but there are always concerns and problems with specification when importing directly, such as extra tariff on more toxic technology. It's a good idea to know and ask about "Rohs" standard components in electrical equipment.
Of new technology, here is a new battery - chemistry being developed: Aquion manufactures cheap, long-lasting batteries for storing renewable energy
[ Warn note: On the proper trade brokering site (N10 import type) - ignore prices you see - to know anything for sure means talking to the supplier about a specific product ! ]
In an email, this would be offered as a typical short list example of a kit.
However, it contains items must be "immensely carefully chosen" , "superfluous items",
and not enough items for a 15 year period.
Quotation 3kw wind 7kw solar hybrid system off-grid
1) 3kw horizontal wind turbine: USD 1800
2) 8m free folding tower: USD 1133
3) 7kw solar panels and brackets: USD 7580
4) 10kw off-grid hybrid controller: USD 1400
5) 10kva off-grid invertor: USD 3117
6) 20pcs 12v200ah gel battery: USD 5000
Total Amount: USD 20030 /SET FOB ------ , CHINA
For the 15 year period it requires to "change" the parameters of the trade deal to get a quote for an order of extra parts to prevent aged used equipment from being the only part to fail that is available!
The following would be the type of modification to the kit deal parameters "you would then ask for for a quote"!
3kw wind 7kw solar hybrid system off-grid
1) 3kw horizontal wind turbine: USD ---- 2) 8m free folding tower: USD ----Construct a 15m tower with local materials. (or if it is 12m or 15m choose it as a cost)
3) 7kw solar panels and brackets: USD ----No mounting brackets
4) 10kw off-grid hybrid controller: USD ---- (2x pieces of these)
5) 10kva off-grid invertor: USD ---- (4x pieces of these)
6) 20pcs 12v200ah gel battery: USD ----Batteries must be gained in a separate trade deal to ensure both price and 15 years float-life at 20oC
Total Amount: USD ---- /SET FOB ------ , CHINA
After 40 years watching government campaigns promise "lower costs" , "cheaper living" and "tax cuts" when all is offered is
new projects, ongoing costs and restrictions to keep money inside Australia , "nothing can be ruder" when that keeps solutions
The new expression for this is "Tent. Rape" short for "tentacle rape"(electricity grid -or- Hentai). Here is a an electricity consumer been looking up deals...(just replace a few words here and there in the sketch)
I remember reading plenty of articles about how people bargained their excess grid tie power for feed in tariff and when they got a good deal the mediating company that made the deal folded. The FIT as it's called from a home grid tie system in one state went from around 20 cents p/Kwh instantly down to 3 cents p/Kwh without consultation after most people were enticed with the high FIT rate. And so the pain in the arse goes on.... (Is this tech support or Predator support ???)
*** Note: While there have been various scandals about the Greyhound racing industry in Australia recently, Animal cruelty laws in Australia are extremely rigid compared to most other nations around the world. The only problem i consider these creatures truly have is being re-homed after they are too old to race past their prime for racing!
Link: Government Report 28 March 2014 (PDF)Greyhounds As Pets and Greenhounds 7.7 In 2009 GRNSW established its own re-homing program - Greyhounds as Pets (GAP). The aim of GAP is to: provide an avenue for people to adopt former racing greyhounds; educate participants on the options for their greyhound after racing; and promote the merits of greyhounds as a pet to the wider community.
7.8 In 2011 GRNSW and the NSW Department of Local Government launched the Greenhounds program. The Greenhounds program allows for pet greyhounds to go muzzle free in public places after they successfully complete a re-training program and are deemed suitable by an approved Greenhounds assessor. GRNSW advised that more than 200 Greenhounds are now muzzle free.350
Slackware 14.1 for those whom program or use Java (December 2015)
Just put Slackware 14.1 into a 4gb RAM computer i acquired using EXT4 filesystem in the setup.
Did nicely , however almost everything these days is X64 processor chunks , so gone are the days of i386 and i586 with Linux installs.
For Java SDK's and Java JRE runtime environments there is also a change.
Any installs you have that were under the i386 and i586 X32 systems do not operate (Usually has .bin extension or .bin.sh).
To Install Java in X64 Slackware the installer should be a .sh (only) file extension AND almost always has "64" in it's installer filename!
Use JRE,SDK,JDK 8 if it is only an issue of mainly running up to date or new Java software,
but you will need to be particularly careful if you wish to install things such as earlier J2EE compiler which really only goes back to J2EE 6 for the X64.
Hybrid Wind Solar Domestic - (D.I.Y. Article) Do It Yourself - HOW TO Article inside site
Includes how to personally import from China to Australia and customs ACBPS shipping management!
The Australian House "The 15 Kw house" - Solar Wind Hybrid "power system" OFF GRID - industrial to domestic and portable , 12 volt systems can power a house , downsizing of home electrical appliances to achieve the same as the bigger equipment , wind turbines grid tied....
Some links relating hot water systems showing "Kw" heater element sizes for models.
If this information were not delivered publicly by a party with "no invested interest"(meaning i have no actual requirement economically as a motive to output this information) in pushing such information you would not be made aware of the fact this method is a cost effective alternative to grid electricity and inclusively solar installers or suppliers of this or any nation.
WARNING to any fool that calls this sites' information commercial or for profit, Money as pricing of off gird power systems is mentioned for proof of theory, parity and clarity and with the comparative context against the unethical national and state government practice of business monopoly and restriction of use of alternative generator methods probably to favor their inefficient out dated and superseded(by off grid power system delivery modularization) domestic(and in some remote area cases) electricity delivery system called(a sort of showcase south park "precious plum") network grid mains electricity thats' average or projected or prospectivised costs per house/building supplied by network will be equal or greater than that of the cost of an off grid power system to implement and as much collect tax through resale stages down the delivery chain of sale and supply(AKA recombinant tax production). The links to suppliers is again a requirement for people to clearly understand the processes involved and products available as a type of proof the alternative exists. These products prices and actions are part of real time and world to as closely match the whole process to achieve the alternative and make aware that these are all the pieces and are accurately and honestly definitive of what each piece is that truly exists as available! Again no one would mention to new home buyers that posses the space requirements(below) of land that their property choice with a loan they could reduce by 30,000 and maintain the larger loan strategy to bring in their electricity by this alternate!
Feral bees (apis mellifera realestatus attractii) induced into a hive (now defunct/lost after vandal attack on the Langstroth)
Carniola bees (apis mellifera carnica) - bought from domestic market apiary settling in